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Problem Solving

Problem Solving

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Problem Solving

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  1. Problem Solving

  2. Overview • Objective of Problem Solving • OODA Loop • Problem Solving Process • Types of “problems” • 8 Steps

  3. Objective of Problem Solving • Objective • Help airmen focus on problem-solving skills that affect: • Mission • Workcenters • People • Approach aimed at: • Increasing combat capability • Making AF more effective & efficient

  4. Objective of Problem Solving • Remove Waste and Inefficiencies • Increase: • Productivity • Asset Availability • Improve: • Response Time and Agility • Energy Efficiency • Sustain Safe and Reliable Operations

  5. OODA Loop • Originated by Col John Boyd (USAF) • A.K.A. “Decision Cycle” • “Forty-Second Boyd” • Begin from disadvantaged position • Defeat any pilot < 40 sec.

  6. OODA Loop • Four Overlapping & Interacting Processes • Observe: Current Situation & Form Theories • Orient: Set Improvement Targets & Determine Root Causes • Decide: Develop Solutions • Act: Implement & Evaluate

  7. Problem Solving Process

  8. Problem Solving Process • Types of “problems” • Something is broken, how do we fix it? • Is there opportunity to make something better? • Why did something happen? Find the answer • New initiative to implement

  9. Problem Solving Process • Step 1: Clarify & Validate the Problem • Recognize the Correct Problem • Go to source • Observe first-hand • State the Problem: ensures everyone working effectively towards same goals • Tools • Go & See • Value Stream Mapping (flow chart) • Voice of Customer Observe

  10. Problem Solving Process • Step 2: Breakdown Problem/ID Gaps • Gather & Review Key Data • Six Characteristics of Metrics (B-SMART) • Balanced • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Results Focused • Timely Observe

  11. Problem Solving Process • Step 2: Breakdown Problem/ID Gaps • Value & Waste Analysis • 8 Types of Waste • Defects - Intellect • Over-production - Motion • Waiting - Excess Inventory • Non-standard over processing • Transportation • Always look for waste in processes • Customer determines end value Observe

  12. Problem Solving Process • Step 3: Set Improvement Targets • Strategic: Visions of what the organization strives to become • Tactical: Define performance level necessary to make strategic vision a reality Orient

  13. Problem Solving Process • Step 4: Determine Root Cause • Most vital step • Avoid efforts directed towards symptoms • Find deepest point (root) w/in sphere of influence • Brainstorm • Quantity, not quality • Hitchhike/Piggyback ideas • Make list: record ideas • Mitigate barriers (habit, fear, inertia, & prejudice) Orient

  14. Problem Solving Process • Step 4: Determine Root Cause • Most vital step • Avoid efforts directed towards symptoms • Find deepest point (root) w/in sphere of influence • Brainstorm • Tools • 5 Whys • Cause & Effect Diagram • Control Chart • Pareto Analysis Orient

  15. Problem Solving Process • Step 5: Develop Countermeasures • Focus on selecting best solution(s) • Have common & agreeable criteria • Factors of analyzing criteria • Effectiveness (will it work or prevent reoccurrence?) • Feasibility (cost, resources, time, etc.) • Impact (job, team, mission, Air Force, etc.) • Action plan • Clear & detailed • Consensus & ownership Decide

  16. Problem Solving Process • Step 6: See Countermeasures Through • Collect data according to action plan • Monitor system • Determine performance of tasks • Are you hitting the targets • Implement contingency plans • Provide training Act

  17. Problem Solving Process • Step 7: Confirm Results & Process • Review & reassess the solution • Ensure plan produced intended results • Monitor project for performance • Baseline (Steps 1 & 2) • B-SMART (Step 3) • “Where you thought you would be” • Meeting targets by deadlines • Return to previous steps as necessary Act

  18. Problem Solving Process • Step 8: Standardize Successful Processes • Most commonly skipped • Answer these questions: • What is needed to standardize improvements? • Do you have documentation? • Tech order changes • Air Force Instruction (AFI) changes • Operating Instruction (OI) changes • Restart Problem Solving Process or OODA Act

  19. Summary • Objective of Problem Solving • OODA Loop • Problem Solving Process • Forms • 8 Steps

  20. Problem Solving Process