The Role of Korean / Korean-American Scientists and Engineers and their Contribution to Global Society Dr. Jung Uck Seo, LFIEEE, FIEE, ChEng Former Minister of Science & Technology Republic of Korea
History is the Teacher of Future Leaders Let us take a journey through the most spectacular 100 years in the history of science and engineering, and learn how our knowledge and skills have grown from the 1900 to today so that we may prepare for the future.
Matters of Life and Death: Medicine and Health 1900: Patients battle illness, while doctors cans do little more than counseling, comforting, and keeping them clean. Today: Doctors treat and often cure patients with a vast array of medicines and medical technologies, but some diseases are still incurable.
Mysteries of the Universe: Physics and Astronomy 1900: The Milky Way galaxy (including some unexplained nebular clouds) is the known universe. Newton's laws explain the physical world. Matter is composed of atoms. Today: The Milky Way is just one galaxy among countless millions we have observed in the universe. There is no set of laws that explains all phenomena in the physical world, although there are many theories. Atoms are composed of many subatomic particles, all of which derive from energy.
In Search of Ourselves: Human Behavior 1900: There is no cure for the mentally ill, who are confined to asylums. "Mind" and "body" are thought of as two separate things. Today: Mental illness can be treated with a range of therapies and medications. We know a great deal about the chemistry and the parts of the brain that control our behavior and thoughts.
Bigger, Better, Faster: Technology 1900: The only way to view the Olympic games in Paris is in person. News about the games travels to America via telegraph and is printed in newspapers. Today: Millions worldwide will watch the 2008 Beijing Olympics on television, transmitted instantaneously via satellite. The news will spread as well by radio, newspaper, and the World Wide Web.
Origins: Earth and Life Sciences 1900: There is no good explanation for catastrophic events such as earthquakes. The Earth is thought to be a mere 50 million years old and the theory of the evolution of species is hotly debated. Today: The plates that make up the Earth's crust move over time causing earthquakes and volcanoes. The earth is known to be 4,500 million years old. The genetic code of DNA, which drives evolution, is better understood every day.
The US Higher Education, Science, Engineering and Medicine • 1862: Morrill Act (The Land-Grant Colleges) • 1863: The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) • 1887: The Laboratory of Hygiene, 1930: Ransdell Act (NIH) 1895: Alfred Nobel Prize • 1916: The National Research Council (NRC) • 1945: Vannevar Bush(1890 – 1974): Science, The Endless Frontier • 1950: The National Science Foundation (NSF) • 1964: The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) • 1970: The Institute of Medicine (IOM)
The Morrill Act: The Land-Grant Colleges • In 1862, Congressman Justin Morrill of Vermont passed an act to give every state remaining in the Union a grant of 30,000 acres of public land for each member of its congressional delegation. • Since every state had at least two senators and one representative, even the smallest state received 90,000 acres. • The states were to sell this land and use the proceeds to establish colleges in engineering, agriculture, and military science. Over seventy "land grant" colleges were established under the original Morrill Act; a second act in 1890 extended the land grant provisions to the sixteen southern states.
The US National Academies The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was signed into being by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863. As mandated in its Act of Incorporation, the Academy has served to investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art whenever called upon to do so by any department of the government. The National Research Council (NRC) was organized in time of war. Whereas the NAS was founded in 1863 in the midst of the American Civil War, the NRC was founded in 1916 against the backdrop of the World War I, which had consumed Europe since August 1914 and threatened to involve the US as well. The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) was founded in 1964 to provide engineering leadership in service to the nation by the same congressional act of incorporation that established the NAS. Under this charter, it is directed to be called upon whenever any department or agency of the government needs investigation, examination, experimentation, and report on any subject of science or art. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) was chartered in 1970 as a component of the NAS.It is a nonprofit organization created for science-based advice on matters of biomedical science, medicine, and health.
Vannevar Bush: an engineer and science administrator • In 1941 the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was subsumed into the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) with Bush as director. • Bush controlled the Manhattan Project until 1943 (when administration was assumed by the Army) and which also coordinated scientific research during World War II. In all, OSRD directed 30,000 men and oversaw development of some 200 weapons and instrumentalities of war: sonar, radar, the proximity fuse, amphibious vehicles, and the Norden bomb sight, all critical in winning the war. • At one time, 2/3 of all the nation’s physicists were working under Bush’s direction. OSRD contributed to many advances in the physical sciences and medicine, including the mass production of penicillin and sulfa drugs. • At OSRD Bush directed overall policy while delegating supervision of divisions to qualified colleagues and letting them do their job without interference. Bush obtained adequate funds from the President and Congress and coordinated research among government, academia, and industry.
Vannevar Bush: an engineer and science administrator • He kept the confidence of the military on the ability of civilians to observe security regulations, and exempting the draft of young scientists into the armed forces. • Bushen visioned an equivalent peacetime government R&D agency that would replace OSRD, considering basic research as the key to national survival, both from a military point of view and in the commercial arena requiring government support. • In July 1945, Bush wrote a report to the President: Science, The Endless Frontier, saying “Basic Research is the pacemaker of technological progress” and “New products and new processes do not appear full-grown. They are founded on new principles and new conceptions, which in turn are painstakingly developed by research in the purest realms of science”. • Bush recommended the creation of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1950 to cement academia, industry and the military which had been forged during the war.
Korea owes the great discoveries and inventions of the scientists and engineers worldwide. A pledge in the minds of Korean scientists and engineers would be: “No doubt, these knowledge and skills of the 20th century altered profoundly not only the quality of our life but also our attitudes toward fellow beings. However, very few, if any, of these pioneering discoveries and inventions were led by Koreans. A challenge for Korean scientists and engineers would be that for the 21st century, in order for Korea to excel in its knowledge prowess, they must “think out of the box” to ensure that Korean people could and would contribute to the science and technology of this century. This means that by the end of the 21st century, they could proudly point to some of the achievements - which are yet to be created – led by Korean”.
Nobel Prize It is my expressed wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, so that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not. Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel • Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, industrialist, and the inventor of the dynamite. He wrote several wills during his lifetime and the last was written a year before his death and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on November 27, 1895. • He was uneasy with the military usage of dynamite. This was deepened by a premature obituary of himself, published in error by a French newspaper on the occasion of the death of his brother Ludvig, condemning him as a "merchant of death." • Nobel bequeathed 94 percent of his total assets, million SEK (€3.4 m, US$4.4 m), for the establishment of five prizes.
Six Nobel Prizes The interest shall be divided into five equal parts: One part to the person, the most important discovery or invention in the field of physics; one part to the person, the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person, the most important discovery in the field of physiology or medicine; one part to the person in the field of literature, the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the person, the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The economics prize was instituted in 1968 at the tercentenary of the Bank of Sweden. The first prize was awarded in 1969.
A prognosis for Korea in 1948 “Korea can never attain a high standard of living. There are virtually no creative Human Resource with the technical knowledge nor skills required to take advantage of Korea's resources and effect an improvement over its primitive rice-economy status. When the US forces withdraw and stop sending in supplies, it will be reduced to a ‘bull-cart economy’, and many a million non-farmers will face starvation.”
Challenge on top of misfortune • The situation looked even more bleak in the summer of 1950 when the Korean War broke out. • Cities and villages became battlefronts and the whole country was destroyed by gunfire and bombing from both sides. • The nation still remained divided by the 38th Parallel. • Challenge: educate its people (HRD) and transform its “bull-cart economy” into a knowledge-based ICT economy for the future.
Korea in ’50Korea today The knowledge and skills, building on the pervasive influence of modern science & technology, brought a fundamental reshaping of the Korean economy. What is underway today is a transformation of “Education” or “Innovation in HRD”.
Korea today isn’t built alone… • Higher education and training: US • National security: ROK-US alliance, UN • Socio-economic development: US, WB, Trade • Scientific knowledge and technical skills: World
Remember the Korean War veterans… Without their sacrifice, Korea today would not exist.
ROK-US Science & Technology Collaboration Seoul, Korea 1965
LBJ Speech: ROK National Assembly, Seoul, Nov 2, 1966 Mr. Speaker, Members of the Assembly: 16 years ago an event occurred in Korea that changed the shape of Asia and the world ---- On a June morning in 1950, we woke up to learn that a communist army had smashed into the Republic of Korea without warning or provocation. Many Americans at that time could not locate Korea on the map. We were concerned mainly with the Communist threat to Europe and the rebuilding of that continent. Asia seemed remote and beyond the pale of our interest ---- For here is one of the truly dramatic stories of our time – A nation transformed within a generation. I hope that a great historian will soon record the story: of how an ancient nation has emerged from the shadows of its colonial past and from the tragedy of war to become one of the youngest and the most vigorous constitutional democracies in the world.
I want a historian totell how this nation - through no fault of its own – was divided, and invaded, and almost destroyed, -- recordthat, when the fighting stopped, Korea faced every conceivable difficulty: its cities in ashes, millions of refugees, transportation in ruins, factories idle, inflation rampant, and unemployment high. -- tellof the men and women who guided this nation through those terrible years; of their greatness and their shortcomings; of their foresight and their errors. -- describethe student uprising, the military revolt, and then the achievement of constitutional government in the fall of 1963.-- recallthe sense of triumph and accomplishment – when the votes were cast and counted, and the people had made their choice of who would govern. -- recordhow you have taken your stand with other nations that are helping South Vietnam to resist a new Communist tactic, one that combines external aggression with internal terror…..
---- I want him torecordthe astonishing economic and social progress that you have made working together in unity here in Korea: record harvests in the last 3 years, andrapid industrialization have given Korea a growth rate of 8% a year- one of the highest in the world; commodity exports have grown from $41m in 1961 to an estimated $250m this year; foreign exchange earnings are almost five times greater now than in 1961; serious inflation has been controlled; the rate of population growth has been brought down and thus you have dealt with one of Korea's – and the world's – most pressing problems; thousands of acres of new land have been reclaimed and terraced, where farm families can settle and thrive; your forests, devastated by war, have been replenished by conservation and new planting; you have launched a new institute of science and technology, of great promise for your future growth; you have encouraged, through your 90% literacy rate, and through the passion of your people for education, a new generation of highly trained young men and women to take their place in industry, in government, in schools, and in your armed forces. ----
1970: Agency for Defense Development Mission: Research, Development, Test and Evaluation of weapons, equipments and related technologies to reinforce defense capability for self-reliant national defense. 1974: R&D Center for Missile and Aircraft 1976: R&D Center for Naval Weapon System 1977: Defense Systems Test Center 1981: Defense Quality Assurance Agency 1995: Naval Weapon System Proving Ground & Test Range 1999: Institute for Defense Information System
Electric Power DevelopmentBase of Industrial Development 1960 Installed Capacity: 270k kW 2005 Installed Capacity: 65M kW Source: KEPCO
Industry Development Once, Korea flattened cast-off oil drums to build buses, running on scrapped US military truck engines. Now, Korea trades hi-tech goods and services with global market. It roles sedans and buses of every type out, and enables every single Korean to enjoy cell-phone and Internet at anytime, anywhere, with anybody. Korea also becomes a major supplier of steel and semiconductor products, and launches the largest oil tankers and ships the world has ever built.
1961 (USD 41M total) 1. Iron Ores 2. Tungsten 3. Raw Yarns 4. Coals 5. Cuttlefish 6. Live Fish 7. Graphite 8. Plywood 9. Rice 10.Swine Bristles 2006 (USD 326B total) 1. Semiconductor 2. Automobile 3. Wireless com Apparatus 4. Computer 5. Vessel 6. Petroleum Products 7. Synthetic Resin 8. Steel Flat-rolled Products 9. Video Apparatus 10.Automobile Parts Korean Exports Labor-intensive Products → Hi-tech Products
Remarks Korea is the first country in economic history whose world trade became the 12th in volume over 40 years starting from such an initially low position as Korea. It is a success based on the combination of the high literacy rate, strong government initiatives, and the positive response from the private sector. In order to succeed, the government had to develop an intensive human resource development program for R&D in support of the related industries. The effective execution of government’s initiatives remains the best way to alleviate poverty in the nation. Just as important is the way people think: “ we can do it.”
WB Country analysis: Korea • Education Projects(Projects 1-5) Support to Secondary and Vocational Schools • Heavy Machinery Project • Electronics Technology Project • Small and Medium Machinery Industry Project • Technology Development Project Series(Project 1-3) Financial Intermediation Project • Industrial Finance Project • Education Sector Loan Project-Programs for S&T Education • Small and Medium Industry Bank Project Series • Technology Advancement Project Series(Project 1-3) • University S&T Research Project • Health Technology Project • Vocational Education Project • Vocational Schools Development Project • Science Education and Libraries Computerization • Environmental Research and Education Project • Environmental Technology Development
The relative position among 12 OECD countries in terms of the R&D expenditure to GDP and number of researchers per 1000 employments
WB Country analysis: Korea (0.0~1.0) • Brain retention 0.6 • Researchers in R&D per million population 0.4 • Total (public and private) expenditure on R&D as % of GDP 0.6 • Royalty and license fees payment per capita 0.4 • Receipt of royalties and license fees per capita 0.1 • International outsourcing of R&D (domestic ownership of foreign-made inventions as % of all inventions owned by residents) 0.15 • Share of high- and medium-tech industries in MVA 0.75 • Share of high- and medium-tech industries in exports 0.8 • Imports of machinery and transport equipment as % of total imports 0.5 • Inward FDI as % of gross capital formation 0.1 • Internet users per 1,000 people 0.7 • Average years of schooling of adults 0.9
My 50 Years in Science and Engineering • Higher Education: 10 years at home and abroad • Service: 40 years in government, industry and academia • Defense communication & electronics: 13 years • Public switching system & network (TDX): 7 years • Mobile phone system & network (CDMA): 6 years • e-Trade Hub development: 2002~ • Build defense RDT&E base and QA capability • Facilitate defense industries for national security • Promote ROK-US collaboration of Science & Technology • Modernize telecom industries for economic development • Develop single widow-platform for e-Trade Hub
My Experience in Industrial Development • The analysis, design, RDT&E, production, implementation and O&M phases of the defense electronics and telecom systems; • Learn the processes of business process improvement (BPI) and business systems improvement (BSI), and their similarities to and differences from the system development cycle; • Acquaint with a variety of techniques and develop best practices for RDT&E, E&T and O&M in telecom systems; • Realize the importance of these techniques as tools; and • Experience both life-cycle management of a large scale national R&D program management through TDX and CDMA programs.
Example: CDMA System Development CycleAnalysis-Design-Production/Implementation/Operation Analysis Design On-Going Evaluation Production System Testing Implementation Operation Operational Evaluation
4G (2010) • 100 Mbps • All-IP (IP Core & IP RAN) Example: Mobile Telecom Technology Evolution • Three different paths evolved separately in Europe, North America and Japan till 2.5G • WCDMA and CDMA2000 1X EV-DO are families of 3G standards and technologies • Discussing on candidate technologies for 4G in Super3G, WWRF, 4G Forum BeforeCellular 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 3.5G 4G Korea . North America CDMA (IS-95A,1996) CDMA2000 1x(Korea, US, Japan) 1xEV-DO IMTS(1969) AMPS(1983) EV-DO Rel.A IS-95B • Voice • 30Km (radius) • Voice • 14.4 kbps circuit • Voice • 64 kbps Data • IS-95A • compatible • Higher Cap Voice/ Data • 2.4 Mbps Data • IS-95A/B Compatible • Voice Capa(x1.5) • 153 kbps Data • IS-95A/B Compatible • Voice • 14.4 kbps circuit Europe TDMA (IS-136,1993) EDGE (Europe,US) W-CDMA (Europe, Korea) TACS(1985) HSDPA GSM GSM GPRS NMT • High Capacity Voice • 384+ kbps Data • 1.8/7.2Mbps, Data • 30-40 kbps, Data • GSM Compatible • Voice • 9.6 kbps Japan W-CDMA (Japan) TACS(1979) PDC+ PDC • Voice • 9.6 kbps • Voice • 28.8 kbps • PDC Compatible IMTS : Improved Mobile Telephone Service AMPS : Advanced Mobile Phone Service TACS : Total Access Communication System NMT : Nordic Mobile Telephone EDGE: Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution GPRS: General Packet Radio Service PDC : Personal Digital Cellular Telecommunication System WWRF: Wireless World Research Forum RAN: Radio Access Network
Example: Evolution towards 4G Network Not a single, many a choices in standards and technologies • Pick a most appropriate technology among similar ones at the risk of multiple investment on similar service/market • WiBro is a Korean challenge but it requires standardization work and business model development yet • Increased competitiveness and the complexity of market environment due to technology-based license • WWAN(1xEV-DO, WCDMA) • Large Coverage • High Cost 4G Outdoor Vehicle • WPAN (Bluetooth) • Connectivity • Low Cost Walk Mobility • WiBro; 802.16e • Mobile Internet • Moderate Cost Stationary Wireless LAN WCDMA, cdma2000 1x, 1xEV-DO • WLAN • Hotspot • High Speed • Low Cost Walk Indoor Bluetooth? Anything better? Binary CDMA is the choice Stationary Wired LAN 0.1 1 10 100 Mbps User Bit rates
Trade Leads & Overseas ads License & Certificate Customs Credit Evaluation Logistics Financial Institution e-Trade Platform Int’l Financial Settlement Global Networking Messaging Hub e-Trade Document Repository Example: e-Trade Platform Development Owner / Trading Co. KFTC SWIFTNet The Bank of Korea Banks Foreign Exchange Network Single Window Portal Gateway e-Market Place e-Biz Site Trade Info Site Marketing Foreign Exchange G4C e-Service Logistics Customs Settlement Credit Eval Co. Korea Export Insurance Corporation Shipper / Airliner Forwarder CY,Bonded Warehouse KLNET KILC National BPR/ISP Data Warehouse Union/Association KCCI Quarantine Station Insurance Company Private Institution Korea Customs Service Customs Broker ForeignChamber of Commerce Overseas Branch Foreign Customs Global Foreign Supplier Bilateral Connection Foreign Buyer