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Mammalian Reproduction II Estrous cycles, Gestation, & Lactation. EEOB 625 6 February 2004. Questions in Mammalian Reproduction II. Estrous cycle and menstrual cycle : Is the difference in the name?

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questions in mammalian reproduction ii
Questions in Mammalian Reproduction II
  • Estrous cycle and menstrual cycle:

Is the difference in the name?

  • Are the physiological, morphological, or behavioral changes different in the two types?
  • Induced vs. Spontaneous ovulation: What is same and what is different about LH?
the estrous cycle and gestation in mammals 1
The Estrous Cycle and Gestation in Mammals 1

Estrous cycle is a series of recurring physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes in the female, marked by estrus and ovulation.

  • A matrix of glands, hormones, and time

1) Hypothalamus – GnRH, 2) Anterior pituitary - FSH & LH, 3) Ovary – estrogen & progesterone, 4) uterus

Cascade of hormonal effects: GnRH FSH & LH estrogen & progesterone uterine tissues

slide4

Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Ovary

Uterus

H-P-G Axis

Fig. 9.6, Feldhamer

the estrous cycle and gestation in mammals 2
The Estrous Cycle and Gestation in Mammals: 2
  • Ovary: follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
  • Uterus: proliferative phase and secretory phase
  • Hormonal control of follicular development, estrus, ovulation, and secretion of progesterone
  • Signals for estrous & ovulation: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Positive feedback of estradiol on LH releaseLH surge

  • LH surge stimulates ovulation. Meiosis I in the oocyte is completed at this time
  • The process of ovulation: rupture of the follicle wall
  • Spontaneous & Induced (e.g. cats)ovulators compared
questions in mammalian reproduction ii1
Questions in Mammalian Reproduction II
  • Estrous cycle and menstrual cycle:

Is the difference in the name?

  • Are the physiological, morphological, or behavioral changes different in the two types?
  • Induced vs. Spontaneous ovulation: What is same and what is different about LH?
the estrous cycle and gestation in mammals 3
The Estrous Cycle and Gestation in Mammals 3

Corpusluteum from granulosa cells of ruptured follicle

Conception: Union of pronuclei (gametes) in oviduct

Implantation of the blastocyst & development of placenta

  • Four extraembryonic membranes of amniotes

- Function of each in oviparous species

- Vitelline (yolk sac) membrane and allantois in

metatherians and eutherians

the placenta and gestation 4
The Placenta and Gestation - 4
  • Ovulation, Fertilization, and Oviductal transport of the embryo
  • Hormonal (E, LH, & P) control of events
  • Eutherian Implantation: Chorioallantoic placenta and uterine epithelium (Figs 9.11, 9.12)
  • Placenta
  • Choriovitelline placenta of metatherians
  • Delayed fertilization & delayed implantation?
the placenta and gestation
The Placenta and Gestation
  • Ovulation, Fertilization, and Oviductal transport of the embryo
  • Hormonal (E, LH, & P) control of events
  • Eutherian Implantation: Chorioallantoic placenta and uterine epithelium (Figs 9.11, 9.12)
  • Placenta
questions in mammalian reproduction iii
Questions in Mammalian Reproduction III
  • Origin of the mammary gland: What’s a brood patch (or sweat) got to do with it?
  • Why is lactation dependent upon suckling?
  • Milk is milk: How different can it be?
mammary gland lactation
Mammary Gland & Lactation
  • Origin & evolution: derived sweat glands?
  • Nutritive secretions in other taxa: ___, ____
  • Original (pre-mammary) function ?
  • Origin of the mammary gland: What’s a brood patch (or sweat) got to do with it?
  • Epidermal secrections: first source of

1) moisture for the neonate?

2) source of nutrition?

3) or something else? __________________

mammary gland lactation1
Mammary Gland & Lactation
  • Origin & evolution: derived sweat glands?
  • Nutritive secretions in other taxa: ___, ____
  • Original (pre-mammary) function ?
  • Epidermal secrections: first source of

1) moisture for the neonate?

2) source of nutrition?

3) or something else? __________________

  • Histology, internal anatomy, & hormones
mammary gland lactation2
Mammary Gland & Lactation
  • Origin & evolution: derived sweat glands?
  • Nutritive secretions in other taxa: ___, ____
  • Original function: water, nutrition, or _____
  • Location & Morphology: udder, teat, & nipple
  • Histology & internal anatomy (handout)
  • Hormones ‑ Somatotropin, P, & E during development
physiology of lactation and the nature of milk
Physiology of Lactation and the Nature of Milk
  • Prolactin: a hormone of maternal care
  • Synthesis of milk: Prolactin & lactiferous cells

Secondary effect on ovarian activity (anestrus)

  • Delivery of milk: oxytocin & myoepithelial cell
physiology of lactation and the nature of milk1
Physiology of Lactation and the Nature of Milk
  • Prolactin: a hormone of maternal care
  • Synthesis of milk: Prolactin & lactiferous cells

Secondary effect on ovarian activity (anestrus)

  • Delivery of milk: oxytocin & myoepithelial cell
  • Components of milk: Casein, lactose & lipids
  • Taxonomic variation in fat content of milk
  • Change of content during the period of lactation