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The Moon

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  1. The Moon

  2. Facts: • Called Luna by the Romans • Selene and Artemis by the Greeks • 2nd brightest object in sky after the Sun. • Orbits around Earth once per month. • The angle between the Earth, Moon and Sun changes; • We see this as the Moon's phases.

  3. Phases • New Moon to New Moon is 29.5 days (709 hours), • Different than the sidereal orbital period of 27.3 days (measured against the stars).

  4. A Terrestrial Planet? • Due to its size and composition; • sometimes classified as a terrestrial "planet" along with • Mercury, • Venus, • Earth, & • Mars.

  5. Spacecraft • First visited by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 in 1959. • Only extraterrestrial body visited by humans. • First landing was on July 20, 1969. • Last was in December 1972. • The first of two bodies in which samples have been returned to Earth. • Other being from comet Wild 2, Collected 2004 - Returned 2006.

  6. The Luna Probe

  7. Luna Missions • Luna 1 1/2/59 Lunar flyby Passed over the Moon at 5000-6000 kilometers on 1/4/59 • Luna 2 9/12/59 Lunar landing Impacted Moon 9/13/59 at 22:02:04 UT Palus Putredinis, 29.10°N lat., 0.0° long. • Luna 3 10/4/59 Lunar flyby Photographed the farside of the Moon on 10/7/59 • Luna 9 1/31/66 Lunar landing Landed on Moon 2/3/66 at 18:44:52 UT Oceanus Procellarum, 7.08°N lat., 295.63°E long. • Luna 10 3/31/66 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 4/3/66 • Luna 11 8/24/66 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 8/28/66 • Luna 12 10/22/66 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 10/25/66 and returned images • Luna 13 12/21/66 Lunar landing Landed on Moon 12/24/66 at 18:01:00 UT Oceanus Procellarum, 18.87°N lat., 297.95°E long. • Luna 14 4/7/68 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 4/10/68 Luna 14 • Luna 15 7/13/69 Lunar lander Crashed on Moon 7/21/69 at 15:51 UT Mare Crisium,17°N lat., 60°W long. Believed to have been an attempted sample-return mission, similar to Luna 16, 20, and 24

  8. Luna Missions • Luna 16 9/12/70 Lunar sample return Landed on Moon 9/20/70 at 05:18:00 UT Mare Fecunditatis, 0.68°S lat., 56.30°E long • Luna 17 11/10/70 Lunar lander Landed on Moon 11/17/70 at 03:47:00 UT Mare Imbrium, 38.28°N lat., 325.00°E long. Lunar Rover - Lunokhod 1 • Luna 19 9/28/71 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 10/3/71 and returned images • Luna 20 2/14/72 Lunar landing Landed on Moon 2/21/72 at 19:19:00 UT Mare Fecunditatis, 3.57°N lat., 56.50°E long. Lunar sample return to Earth 2/25/72 • Luna 21 1/8/73 Lunar landing Landed on Moon 1/15/73 at 23:35:00 UT Mare Serenitatis, 25.51°N lat., 30.38°E long. Lunar Rover - Lunokhod 2 • Luna 22 6/2/74 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit around 6/3/74 and returned images • Luna 24 8/14/76 Lunar sample return Landed on Moon 8/18/76 at 02:00:00 UT Mare Crisium, 12.25°N lat., 62.20°E long.

  9. Lunar transfer orbits. (NASA) Spacecraft modules: CM, command module; CSM, command-service module; LM, lunar module; SM, service module; S-IVB, Saturn IVB.

  10. Apollo 1 Saturn IB • Grissom, White, Chaffee • No LM • February 21, 1967 (Planned) • Unlaunched - On January 27, 1967 Gus Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee were killed when a fire erupted in their Apollo spacecraft during a test on the launch pad.

  11. Apollo 7 Saturn IB • Schirra, Eisele, Cunningham • No LM • October 11, 1968 15:02 GMT • 10d 20h 09m 03s • First manned Apollo flight, first manned flight of the Saturn IB.

  12. Apollo 8 Saturn V • Borman, Lovell, Anders • No LM • December 21, 1968 12:51 GMT • 06d 03h 00m 42s • First manned flight around the Moon, • first manned flight of the Saturn V.

  13. Apollo 9 Saturn V • McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart • LM - Gumdrop Spider • March 3, 1969 16:00 GMT • 10d 01h 00m 54s • First manned flight of the Lunar Module.

  14. Apollo 10 Saturn V • Stafford, Young, Cernan • CM - Charlie Brown • LM - Snoopy • May 18, 1969 16:49 GMT • 08d 00h 03m 23s • First manned flight of the Lunar Module around the Moon.

  15. Apollo 11 Saturn V • Armstrong, Collins, Aldrin • CM - Columbia • LM - Eagle • July 16, 1969 13:32 GMT • 08d 03h 18m 35s • First manned landing on the Moon, July 20.

  16. Apollo 12 Saturn V • Conrad, Gordon, Bean • CM - Yankee Clipper • LM - Intrepid • November 14, 1969 16:22 • GMT 10d 04h 36m 24s • First precise manned landing on the Moon. • Recovered part of Surveyor 3 probe.

  17. Apollo 13 Saturn V • Lovell, Swigert, Haise • CM - Odyssey • LM - Aquarius • April 11, 1970 19:13 GMT • 05d 22h 54m 41s • Oxygen tank exploded en route, forcing cancellation of landing. • First (to date) manned non-orbital lunar flight.

  18. Apollo 14 Saturn V • Shepard, Roosa, Mitchell • CM - Kitty Hawk • LM - Antares January 31, 1971 21:03 GMT • 09d 00h 01m 58s • Alan Shepard, the sole astronaut of the Mercury MR-3 mission - and thus the first American in space - walks (and plays golf) on the Moon.

  19. Apollo 15 Saturn V • Scott, Worden, Irwin • CM - Endeavour • LM - Falcon • July 26, 1971 13:34 GMT • 12d 07h 11m 53s • First mission with the Lunar Rover vehicle.

  20. Apollo 16 Saturn V • Young, Mattingly, Duke • CM - Casper • LM - Orion • April 16, 1972 17:54 • GMT 11d 01h 51m 05s • First landing in the lunar highlands.

  21. Apollo 17 Saturn V • Cernan, Evans, Schmitt • CM - America • LM - Challenger • December 7, 1972 05:33 GMT • 12d 13h 51m 59s • Final Apollo lunar mission, first night launch, only mission with a professional geologist.

  22. Spacecraft • 1994 - very extensively mapped by the spacecraft Clementine • 1999 – again by Lunar Prospector. • 2007 – Lunar Reconnaissance Observer • 2013 – LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer)

  23. Why the Same side Towards Earth? • Tides slowing of Earth's rotation by 2 milliseconds/century. • This reduces the energy associated with the Moon’s orbit. • It then raises the Moon into a higher orbit by about 3.8 centimeters per year.

  24. Tidal Lock • Eventually, the Earth's rotation will be slowed to match the Moon's period. • As is the case with Pluto and Charon.

  25. Librations • The Moon appears to wobble a bit (due to its slightly non-circular orbit). • A few degrees of the far side can be seen. • The majority of the far side was completely unknown until the Soviet spacecraft Luna 3 photographed it in 1959.

  26. How much of the moon can be observed from Earth? • About 65% ????? • Librations help tilt Moon a bit • Different observing locations on Earth (North - South) • Different time observed (East - West motion of observing location) • Inclination of Moon’s orbit. Sometime we observe from below, sometimes from above.

  27. The Dark Side • There is no "dark side" of the Moon • All parts of the Moon get sunlight half the time... • except for a few deep craters near the poles.

  28. Water? • Clementine suggested that there may be water ice in some deep craters near the Moon's south pole which are permanently shaded. • Reinforced by the Lunar Prospector. • There is apparently ice at the north pole as well.

  29. Moon Interior - Crust • Averages 68 km thick • Varies from essentially 0 km under Mare Crisiumto 107 km near the crater Korolev on the lunar far side.