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psychology – unit 2

psychology – unit 2

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psychology – unit 2

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  1. psychology – unit 2 STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

  2. “I had an extremely strange dream last night,” Linda said as she, Marc, and Todd were standing around at school waiting for the bell to ring. “What was it about? Was I in it?” Marc wanted to know. “Sorry, Marc, you weren’t,” Linda replied. “Actually, you know who was in it? Nick. And it was weird because it was Nick the way he used to be before he had the drug problem, before he started spacing out all the time. Back when you could talk with him and know that he was actually listening.” The group was silent for a few seconds while they recalled the way Nick used to be. They were all glad his parents had convinced him to go to a treatment center for help. “But Nick wasn’t the only person in my dream,” Linda continued. “The thing is, I can’t remember who else was there. It was someone I know, but I can’t think of who!” She was obviously annoyed. “Hey, in a movie I saw last weekend, this guy used hypnosis to help a woman remember her dreams,” said Todd.

  3. “Did it work?” asked Linda. “Well, in the movie it did,” said Todd. “But I read in a magazine article that you can only be hypnotized if you want to be.” “How did he hypnotize her in the movie?” Linda wanted to know. “What kinds of things did he do?” “Well, first he got out a chain with something hanging form it. He began to swing it slowly back and forth in front of the woman’s eyes, and he told her to concentrate on it. Then he told her that she was getting sleepy, very sleepy, and that her eyelids were getting heavy. Once he’d put her in a trance, he asked her some questions about her dreams, and she was able to answer them. It was amazing.” “Huh,” pondered Linda. “Sounds a little creepy to me.” Just then the bell rang, and everyone went off to class. Linda never did figure out who else had been in her dream. Rathus, 104

  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSCIOUSNESS What is CONSCIOUSNESS? Consciousness is a state of awareness of ourselves and our world It is a construct—a concept that cannot be seen or touched It includes our thoughts, feelings, sensations and perceptions

  5. What is meant by AWARENESS? FOCUSED AWARENESS: concentration only on the immediate task at hand, such as an athlete “being in the zone”; wide awake, fully alert, and fully engaged 2 1

  6. DRIFTING AWARENESS: daydreaming; a low level of awareness; fantasizing; idle but directed thinking while awake 4 3

  7. DIVIDED CONSCIOUSNESS: multiple “awareness” of separate thinking processes 5 MULTI-TASKING: the concurrent or interweaved execution of two or more jobs by a single CPU.

  8. What are the LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS? perceptions recalled awareness CONSCIOUS LEVEL thoughts present awareness PRECONSCIOUS LEVEL memories stored knowledge hidden; “non-awareness” UNCONSCIOUS LEVEL violent motives selfish needs biological functions Unacceptable desires fears shameful experiences immoral urges NON-CONSCIOUS LEVEL 6

  9. What about UNCONSCIOUSNESS? Lack of awareness of one’s surroundings or loss of consciousness 8 coma anesthesia 7 head trauma 9

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  11. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS Sleep Why sleep? The brain and the body recover from stress Develop healthy immune system Growth and regeneration of body cells Primitive form of hibernation—we sleep to conserve energy

  12. How much sleep? • Different people need different amounts of sleep; an “age related” pattern • Babies 16 hrs/day • Teenagers 9 hrs/day • Adults 7-8 hrs/day • Older adults 5-6 hrs/day 11

  13. Sleep debt: a lack of sleep creates a need to “make-up” the loss Increase susceptibility to illness Unusual levels of anxiety Apathy Slowed reflexes Reduced ability to concentrate 12

  14. Circadian rhythm: daily cycle of bodily processes • The human biological clock functions on a 25 hour cycle • External cues (sunlight, alarm clocks) reset the natural cycle 13

  15. What are the LEVELS OF WAKEFULNESS? Alert Wakefulness: state of focused attention on active thought 14 15 Relaxed Wakefulness: state of resting quietly with your eyes closed

  16. What are the STAGES OF SLEEP? • Stage 1 Sleep – light sleep from which the person can be easily awakened • Stage 2 Sleep – deeper sleep, but still easily awakened • Stage 3 Sleep – deep sleep; difficult to arouse the sleeper • Stage 4 Sleep – deepest stage of sleep • REM – rapid eye movement sleep; stage when dreams occur

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  19. What about DREAMS? • Purpose of dreaming • To process and reorganize information • To work out unresolved problems • To make sense of random stimulation to the brain “…to sleep, perchance to dream….” Hamlet 18

  20. Psychology of dreaming • Freud believed dreams represent a form of wish fulfillment – dreams were the “royal road to the unconscious” • Manifest content: the story line, images and other perceptual aspects of dreams • Latent content: the hidden meaning of dreams that comes from the dreamer’s unconscious wishes 19

  21. A bio-psychological approach traces dream activity to simple electric impulses • No scientific evidences supports the claim that dreams have mystical or predictive meanings 20

  22. What about SLEEP DISORDERS? • Insomnia • Types of • Trouble getting to sleep • Trouble staying asleep • Trouble return to sleep after awakening 21

  23. Characteristics of Insomnia Sufferers • Higher levels of autonomic nervous system activity • Higher anxiety levels • More tension in the forehead • More concerned about physical complaints • Coping with Insomnia • Sleeping pills • Practice relaxation techniques • Avoid worrying in bed • Establish a regular routine 22

  24. Narcolepsy. A sudden sleep during daytime hours; rapid onset of REM; duration may be as long as 15 minutes Sleep Apnea. Stopping breathing while sleeping; often caused by an overly thick palate or enlarged tonsils that block a person’s airways; snoring is clue to apnea; risks are hypertension, high blood pressure, and tiredness 23 24

  25. Nightmare Disorder. Disturbing nightmares that are very vivid and intense; elaborate, story-like dreams that feel extremely threatening; stress contributes 26 25 Night Terrors. More intense than nightmares; they occur in deep sleep, not REM; appears to be an association with delayed stress (soldiers); hearts pounding, rapid breathing, incoherence, wild movements

  26. Sleep Walking. Performing, while asleep, activities normally done while awake; generally harmless and not related to a larger emotional or psychological problem

  27. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS Drugs PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS include any chemical that affects the nervous system and results in altered states of consciousness. There are differences between USE, MISUSE, and ABUSE. 28 27 29 -HABITUAL- -SOCIAL- -MEDICAL- -PATHOLOGICAL-

  28. The American Psychological Association lists three criteria for drug use, becoming drug abuse • Pathological use • (habitual, maladaptive, and compulsive) • Impairment of occupational or social functioning • Lasts one month or more

  29. Dangers of Drug Abuse • Death or injury by overdose or accident • Legal consequence • Destructive behavior • Loss of control • Drug dependence -- addiction • Physical dependence: caused by repeated usage that changes body chemistry • Psychological dependence: a pattern of behavior to satisfy a psychological need

  30. Treatments for Drug Abuse • Detoxification • Maintenance programs – controlled use to minimize addiction • Counseling – helpful only if the use of the drug is for psychological reasons • Support groups • Regardless of the method for treating drug abuse, the person must realize he has a problem and desire to change

  31. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS Hypnosis What is HYPNOSIS? A state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility A trance-like state in which subjects do not exercise critical-thinking skills It is not… …sleep …drug-induced sleep …like any other state of consciousness

  32. What are the uses of HYPNOSIS? • Entertainment and amusement • Posthypnotic Suggestion – made during hypnosis that influences the participant’s behavior afterward • to remember or to forget after the trance • to help change unwanted behavior • Hypnotic analgesic – reduction of pain through reduced anxiety and increased relaxation • To reveal problems and gain insights – hyperamnesia – retrieval of lost memories

  33. How does Hypnosis work? • A trust relationship between the hypnotist and subject; cooperation, not domination • A hypnotist induces a trance by slowing persuading the subject to lose interest in external distractions • Braid method • Eye method • Machine method

  34. What are the dangers of HYPNOSIS? Embarrassment due to external control Dissociation – unusual change in one’s self-identity; mental images are lost to conscious awareness and become unavailable to voluntary recall Symptom substitution – hypnosis may eliminate disorders, but unless the cause is eliminated it may manifest itslelf another way

  35. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS Meditation What is MEDITATION? The focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation (Kasshau, 195) 35

  36. What are the approaches to Meditation? 1. Transcendental Meditation. The mental repetition of a word or phrase; concentration 37

  37. 2. Mindfulness Meditation. Focuses on the present moment; observation of physiological rhythms, inner thoughts, sensations or outer objects 36 3. Meditation as a form of relaxation.

  38. 1 2 3 Belch, slide #5 4 5 Belch, slide #6 6 7 crashes-NFL-injuries.jpg 8 9 10 Belch, slide #9 11 12 13 14 unknown 15 16 Picture Credits

  39. Picture Credits 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 apnea:*Qy6bC4V6G*bT4Qzw2y8*lGM4ef7dpg8FhPmudjmdr- VE3FjmbjMNCU2qvsDHQBDCqpZB6BNAD3ytngaGiaNA8WQTeug/sleep_apnea.jpg?width=183&height=183&crop=1%3A1 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Drug abuse -- Hypnosis -- Braid method - 33 Hypnotist -

  40. 34 Hypnotic wheel - 35 36 37 Picture Credits

  41. Selected Bibliography American Academy of Sleep Education. Belch, Hal. (2004). States of consciousness. Culver City, CA: Social Studies School Service. Kasshau, Richard. (2003). Understanding psychology. New York: Glencoe McGraw-Hill. McMahon, Judith W. and Romano, Tony. (2000). Psychology and you, 3rd ed. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company. Rathus, Spencer A. (2003). Psychology: principles in practice. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Travis, Fred. (2006). Are all meditations the same? Comparing the neural patterns of mindfulness meditation, Tibetan Buddhism practice "unconditional loving-kindness and compassion," and the transcendental meditation technique. Science of Consciousness. Retrieved from