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Sociology of Sport V. Psychology of Sport. Locus of Control Difference Fundamental Attribution Error Instinct v. Culture Intelligence v. Internalization. Psychology of Sport. Study in terms of attributes and processes that exist inside the individual

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sociology of sport v psychology of sport
Sociology of Sport V. Psychology of Sport
  • Locus of Control Difference
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
  • Instinct v. Culture
  • Intelligence v. Internalization
psychology of sport
Psychology of Sport
  • Study in terms of attributes and processes that exist inside the individual
  • Focus on motivation, cognition, self-esteem, and personality
  • Sample research question:
    • How is the motivation of athletes related to their athletic success?
sociology of sport
Sociology of Sport
  • Sociologists study sport in terms of the social conditions that surround and are outside the individual athlete
  • Focus on relations, culture, social class, sexuality, and ethnicity
  • Sample research question:
    • how do the prevailing cultural definitions of masculinity and femininity affect the success of athletes?
why resistance to the sociology of sport
Why Resistance to the Sociology of Sport?
  • Too Complex
    • Easier to change individual athletes
    • Easier to change the way athletes deal with external conditions
    • Requires a change in the external conditions of athletes lives
  • Personally Troubling
    • Coaches and parents view changes as causing trouble
    • Changing the way coaches exercise power and control over athletes requires coaches to make personal changes
    • Requires a change in the external conditions of athletes lives
why apply the sociology of sport
Why Apply the Sociology of Sport?
  • Think Critically
    • Understand social problems of athletes and the social issues associated with sport
  • Beyond Physical Performance
    • See beyond the score and see how sport affects the way people feel, think, and live their lives
  • Informed Choices
    • Learning about sociology of sport will help you make intelligent choices about your own participation
  • Transforming Sport
    • Making schools and communities more inclusive through sports
why study sociology of sport
Why study Sociology of Sport?
  • Sport is related to all aspects of a society
  • Learning about the sociology of sport teaches about the society
    • Ideology – a combination of ideal, beliefs and attitudes
      • Dominant ideology – the combination promoted by the dominant and powerful groups of a society
gender ideology
Gender Ideology
  • Sports first developed around an ideology of gender
  • A gender logic that existed in the dominant culture
  • Gender logic worked to the advantage of men
  • Gender logic was referred to a common sense
  • The basic tenet of gender logic:
    • Women are naturally inferior to men!
    • In strength
    • Physical skill
    • Emotional control
    • Intelligence
gender ideology 2
Gender Ideology (2)
  • The dominant ideology led to a sport vocabulary supporting the gender logic
    • Correct throw ( like a man)
    • Incorrect throw (like a girl)
  • Coaches use the logic to motivate players
    • “you are playing like a bunch of girls.”
  • Gender logic serves to privilege boys
  • Gender logic creates discrimination against girls in sport
  • The gender logic has also spilled over into all social life
    • politics
    • business
  • There is also race logic, class logic, and character logic
sport and family
Sport and Family
  • Sport has major impacts of family life
    • Millions of children are involved in sport
    • Parents organize, coach, attend games and drive children to events
    • Changing patterns of youth involvement in sport result in changing patterns of family life
sport and the economy
Sport and the Economy
  • The economies of most countries are affected heavily by sport participation
    • Tax dollars are used to contribute to the success of sport in communities and most countries
    • Per capita income at the end of the 20th century was about $4000, but some athletes were making $30 million per year in salary
sport and politics
Sport and Politics
  • Sport is link to national pride
    • Politicians promote themselves by association with sport teams and players
    • Athletes are frequently elected to political office on the basis of athletic participation
      • Jack Kemp
      • Steve Largent
sport and education
Sport and Education
  • Sport teams in High Schools usually attract more attention than academic events
  • Sport are the most prominent representative of colleges
    • The success or failure of the institution is sometimes connected to success in sport
sport and religion
Sport and Religion
  • Religious rituals are increasingly used in sport participation in the USA
    • Large nondenominational organizations have been created for the purpose of converting young athletes to a religious ideology (Christian Athletes)
  • Churches sponsor athletic events
    • Churches alter schedules to accommodate sporting events
sociology of sport theory
Sociology of Sport Theory
  • The basic tenets of Functionalism
  • Social order is based on consensus and shared values
  • Consensus about shared values is what holds society together, reducing conflict
  • All social systems tend toward a state of balance and equilibrium
functionalism s main social concern
Functionalism’s Main Social Concern
  • Functionalism is concerned with how social systems (like Sport) contribute to the needs of the society
  • How does sport contribute to the smooth operation of society?
functionalism and the study of sport
Functionalism and the Study of Sport
  • How does sport fit into the social life and contribute to social stability?
  • How does sport participation influence personal development?
functionalism s perception of sport
Functionalism’s Perception of Sport
  • Sport is a valuable social institution that benefits society and individuals
  • Sport is a source of inspiration on both the personal and social levels of society
the policy implication of functionalism
The Policy Implication of Functionalism
  • Develop and expand sport programs that will promote traditional values
  • Expand programs that promote positive character development
  • Expand programs that contribute to the stability of society
criticisms of functionalist theory
Criticisms of Functionalist Theory
  • Overstates the positive consequences
  • Overlooks the negative
  • Ignores the unequal participation rates for all sports
  • Ignores the social construction of sport in society
  • Ignores the diversity in sport
  • Ignores the extent to which sport promotes the interest of wealth and power
conflict theory and sport
Conflict Theory and Sport
  • The basic tenets of Conflict Theory are:
  • Social order is based on coercion and exploitation, not consensus
  • Order is the result of economic power and the use of economic power to exploit labor
  • Social class shapes the social structure of society and the social relationships in society
conflict theory s major social concerns
Conflict Theory’s Major Social Concerns
  • How is economic power distributed and used in society?
  • What are the dynamics of social class relations?
  • Who is privileged and exploited in class relations?
conflict theory and the study of sport
Conflict Theory and the Study of Sport
  • How does sport reflect class relations?
  • How is sport used to maintain the interests of those with power and wealth in society?
  • How has the profit motive distorted sport?
conflict theory and the perception of sport
Conflict Theory and the Perception of Sport
  • Sport is a form of physical activity that is distorted by the needs of capital.
  • Sport is an opiate that distracts attention away from the social problems created by economic exploitation.
the policy implication of conflict theory
The Policy Implication of Conflict Theory
  • Eliminate the profit motive in sport
  • Equalized participation through program expansion and participation
  • Allow the participation in sport to be a source of physical well-being
criticism of conflict theory
Criticism of Conflict Theory
  • Overstates the influence of economic interests
  • Assumes that those with economic wealth shape sports to meet economic interests
  • Ignores sport as a liberating experience
critical theory and sport
Critical Theory and Sport
  • The basic tenets of Critical Theory are:
  • Social order is negotiated through struggles over ideology and power
  • Social life is full of diversity, complexity, and contradictions
critical theory s major social concerns
Critical Theory’s Major Social Concerns
  • How is cultural ideology produced, reproduced, and transformed?
  • What are the conflicts and problems that affect the lives of those who lack power in society?
critical theory and sport28
Critical Theory and Sport
  • How are power relations reproduced and/or resisted in and through sport?
  • Whose voices are and are not represented in the narratives and images that constitute sport?
critical theory and the perception of sport
Critical Theory and the Perception of Sport
  • Sports are social constructions
  • Sports are sites where culture is produced, reproduced, and transformed
  • Sports are cultural practices that repress and/or empower people
the policy implication of critical theory
The Policy Implication of Critical Theory
  • Use sports as sites for challenging and transforming forms exploitation and oppression
  • Increase the range and diversity of sport participation
  • Challenge the voices and perspectives of those with power in sport
criticisms of critical theory
Criticisms of Critical Theory
  • No way to identify forms of resistance
  • No strategy of dealing with problems, conflicts, and injustice in sports
feminist theory and sport
Feminist Theory and Sport
  • The basic tenets of Feminist Theory are:
  • Social order is based primarily on the values, experiences, and interests of men with power
  • Social life and social order are gendered
feminist theory and the study of sport
Feminist Theory and the Study of Sport
  • How are sports gendered activities?
  • How do sports reproduce the dominant gender logic of society?
  • What are the strategies for resisting and transforming sport forms that privilege men?
the policy implications of feminist theory
The Policy Implications of Feminist Theory
  • Use sports as sites for challenging and transforming oppressive forms of gender relations
  • Expose and resist all expressions of homophobia and misogyny (hatred of women) in sport
  • Transform sports to emphasize partnerships over competition and domination
criticisms of feminist theory
Criticisms of Feminist Theory
  • No way to identify forms of resistance
  • No attention to gender and other categories of experience (i.e. childhood games and play)
interaction theory and sport
Interaction Theory and Sport
  • The basic tenet of Interaction Theory is:
    • Social order is created from the bottom up through intentional interaction
interaction theory s major social concerns
Interaction Theory’s Major Social Concerns
  • How are meanings, identities, and culture created through social interaction?
  • How do people become involved in sports, become defined as athletes, and move out of sports into the rest of their lives?
interaction theory and the perception of sport
Interaction Theory and the Perception of Sport
  • Sports are forms of culture created through social interaction.
  • Sport participation is grounded in the decisions made by people in connection with their identities and their relationships.
the policy implications of interaction theory
The Policy Implications of Interaction Theory
  • Allow individuals to shape sport to fit their social reality.
  • Make sport organization more democratic and less hierarchical.
  • Focus on the culture and organization of sport, rather than individual athletes when trying to control deviance in sport.
criticisms of the interaction theory of sport
Criticisms of the Interaction Theory of Sport
  • Fails to explain how the meaning of sport is connected to individual identity.
  • Ignores issues of social power in sport.
general historical issues
General Historical Issues
  • Physical activities and games have existed in nearly all cultures
  • There are decreasing contrasts between the games that different people play today
  • Decreasing contrasts are due to cultural diffusion and the power and influence of sponsoring corporations
historical cultural variations
Historical & Cultural Variations

Variations exist because:

  • Sports are cultural practices that can serve a variety of social purposes
  • Sports are created within the constraints of the social world
ancient greece
Ancient Greece

Sports were:

  • Grounded in mythology
  • Linked with religious beliefs
  • Characterized by:
  • Gender exclusion
  • Frequent violence
  • Absence of administrative structures
  • Absence of measurements & record keeping
roman contests and games
Roman Contests and Games
  • Emphasized spectacle, combat, and the power of political leaders
  • Characterized by
    • Diversions for the masses
    • Exclusion of women as athletes
    • Absence of quantification and record keeping
medieval europe
Medieval Europe
  • Folk games played by peasants
  • Tournaments played by elite for purposes of military readiness
  • Gender restrictions grounded in religious dogma and beliefs
  • Games lacked specialization and organization
renaissance reformation enlightenment
Renaissance, Reformation, & Enlightenment
  • Increasing control over peasants
  • Lives of many were restricted by labor
  • Calvinist and Puritan beliefs did not promote any forms of leisure
  • Games constituted diversions for people
characteristics of play
Characteristics of Play
  • Individual effort is separate from others
  • Action and behavior are free and spontaneous
  • Uncertainty is a dominant feature
  • Without “fixed” rules and no time limit on play
characteristics of game
Characteristics of Game
  • Competition is a key factor in involvement
  • Outcome determined by physical or mental skill, but strategy and chance have a large role
  • Time is not a relevant factor in involvement
characteristics of sport
Characteristics of Sport
  • Activity is ritualized, with spontaneity diminished
  • Formal rules, structure of roles, and time limitations
  • Individual liability and responsibility for behavior and outcome
  • Outcome extends beyond the bounds of the activity
  • Individual time is required for practice and mastery
industrial revolution early years
Industrial Revolution:Early Years
  • Organized, competitive sports emerged, especially among elite
  • Time and space for games were limited in urban areas
  • Slavery and the exploitation of other workers limited widespread involvement in sports
industrial revolution later years
Industrial Revolution:Later Years
  • Growing emphasis on rationality and organization in society & sports
  • Most sports were segregated by social class
  • Women’s participation in sports was very limited
elite competitive sports in the us 1780 1920
Elite, Competitive Sports in the US:1780-1920
  • Sports often were used by wealthy to reinforce status distinctions
  • The organization of sports favored the interests of those with power and wealth
  • Increased participation opportunities for the working class, especially men
elite competitive sports in the us 1780 1920 cont
Elite, Competitive Sports in the US: 1780-1920 (cont)
  • Sport participation comes to be linked with character development
  • Organized sports were tied close to ideas about:
  • masculinity and femininity
  • race and ethnicity
  • age and disability
sports history 1920 to today
Sports History:1920 to Today
  • Entertainment, professionalization, and commercialism
  • Masculinity and violence
  • Nationalism and chauvinism
  • Gender inequities and homophobia
  • Racism and racial discrimination
  • Class dynamics
history lessons the o rigins of modern struggles
History Lessons: the origins of modern struggles
  • The modern struggles involve three dominant areas confrontation:
    • What is the meaning, purpose, and organization of sports?
      • Struggles over meaning – is soccer subversive?
      • Struggles over purpose – is winning the only thing?
      • Struggles over organization – can we play without a coach?
    • Who plays and under what conditions?
      • Struggles over involvement – can everyone play?
      • Struggles over conditions – do I have to submit to a drug test to play?
    • How and why sports are sponsored?
      • Struggles over need – do we really need funding?
      • Struggles over sources – what is better government or private finding?
characteristics of high profile organized competitive sports
Characteristics of High-profile, Organized, Competitive Sports
  • Specialization
  • Rationalization
  • Bureaucratization
  • Quantification
    • Records
sports and socialization

Sports and Socialization

Who Plays

and What Happens to Them?

socialization definition
Socialization: Definition
  • The process of internalizing the norms and values of the group
  • Internalization means taking norms and values from others and making those norms and values part of your self (identity)
  • Occurs as we interact with others, without conscious thought
  • Involves the formation of ideas about who we are and what is important in our lives
socialization a functionalist approach
Socialization: A Functionalist Approach

Based on an internationalization model that focuses on:

  • The characteristics of those being socialized
  • The people and institutions believed to do the socializing
  • The specific outcomes of socialization, i.e., the types of learning that occurs
socialization a conflict approach
Socialization: A Conflict Approach

Based on an internalization model that focuses on:

  • How sports and sport participation divides people in the working class
  • How people with few resources are denied opportunities to play sports
  • The lack of rights among athletes
  • How money and power are used to control sports and exploit others to maintain the status quo
socialization interactionist models
Socialization: Interactionist Models
  • Utilize qualitative rather than quantitative research methods
  • Goal is to obtain detailed descriptions of sport experiences
  • Seek information on how people make decisions about sports in their lives
  • Connect meanings given to sports and sport experiences with the larger social and cultural context
becoming involved staying involved in sports
Becoming Involved & Staying Involved in Sports

Functionalist research indicates that sport participation is related to:

  • A person’s abilities & characteristics
  • The influence of significant others
  • The availability of opportunities to play & experience success in sports
becoming involved staying involved in sports64
Becoming Involved & Staying Involved in Sports

Interactionist research indicates that sport participation is related to:

  • Ongoing processes in people’s lives
  • Decision making processes in which decisions:
  • Change as social circumstances change
  • Are never made once and for all time
stevenson s findings 1999
Stevenson’s Findings(1999)

Becoming an elite athlete involves:

  • The process of introduction and involvement
  • The process of developing commitment
donnelly young s findings 1999
Donnelly & Young’s Findings (1999)

Becoming an athlete in a sport subculture involves:

  • Acquiring knowledge about the sport
  • Associating with people in the sport
  • Internalizing the norms of the sport
  • Receiving recognition and acceptance from other athletes
coakley white s findings 1999
Coakley & White’s Findings (1999)

Deciding to play sports depends on:

  • Ideas about sport’s connection to other interests and goals
  • Desires to develop & display competence
  • Social and material support
  • Memories of past experiences in sports
  • General cultural images and messages about sports
functionalist and conflict theory research on dropping out of sports
Functionalist and Conflict Theory: Research on Dropping Out of Sports
  • People don’t drop out forever, nor do they cut all ties with sports
  • Dropping out is tied to other changes and transitions in a person’s life
  • Dropping out is not just related to bad experiences
  • Dropping out may cause problems among those who
    • Have identities grounded totally in sports
    • Lack social & material resources
coakley s findings 1992
Coakley’s Findings (1992)

Burnout among elite adolescent athletes was most likely when:

  • High performance sports were organized so that athletes had little control over their lives
  • Sport involvement interfered with accomplishing important developmental tasks
koukouris findings 1994
Koukouris’ Findings (1994)

Ending or reducing sport participation was associated with:

  • The need to find a job and become independent
  • Realistic assessments of sport skills and potential for future achievements
  • Efforts to stay physically active and connected with sports
wheeler s findings 1999
Wheeler’s Findings (1999)

When competitive sport careers ended, the main challenges faced by athletes with disabilities were:

  • Reinvesting time and energy into other spheres of life
  • Reconnecting with family members and friends
  • Going back to school and getting on with occupational careers
summary changing or ending competitive sport participation
Summary: Changing or Ending Competitive Sport Participation
  • Changes in participation are grounded in decision-making processes tied to people’s lives, life courses, and social worlds
  • Identity issues and developmental issues are important
  • Problems are most likely when sport participation has constricted a person’s life
do sports build character
Do Sports Build Character?

In many cultures people use a form of character logic that assumes that playing sports automatically builds positive traits

factors often overlooked in research on character building in sports
Factors Often Overlooked in Research on Character Building in Sports
  • Different sports offer different experiences
  • Selection processes in organized sports favor some characteristics over others
  • Different people define sport experiences in different ways
  • Meanings given to sport experiences often change over time
power performance vs pleasure participation sports

Emphasis on connections between people

Ethic of expression, enjoyment, health

Body = source of pleasure

Inclusion & accom-modation of differences

Democratic structures

Compete with others


Use power to push limits in pursuit of victories

Excellence proved through winning

Body = tool and weapon

Competence-based inclusion/exclusion

Hierarchical structures

Opponents = enemies

Power & Performance Vs. Pleasure & Participation Sports
sport participation is most likely to produce positive effects when i
Sport Participation Is Most Likely to Produce Positive Effects When (I)
  • New non-sport identities are formed
  • Knowledge is gained about the world beyond sports
  • Experiences go beyond sports
  • New relationships are formed that go beyond sports
sport participation is most likely to produce positive effects when ii
Sport Participation Is Most Likely to Produce Positive Effects When (II)
  • Lessons learned in sports are applied to situations outside of sports
  • Participants are seen by others as total human beings, not just athletes
  • General competence and responsibility are learned
general summary
General Summary:
  • If playing sports constricts or limits a person’s life, expect negative socialization effects
  • If playing sports expands or diversifies a person’s life, expect positive socialization effects
studies of sport experiences
Studies of Sport Experiences

The voices of sport participants indicate that

  • People define and give meaning to their sport experiences in connection with their social relationships
  • Meanings given to sport experiences are grounded in cultural definitions about gender, race & ethnicity, social class, sexuality, and other characteristics defined as socially important
studies of the social worlds of sports
Studies of the Social Worlds of Sports
  • Sports can be sites for powerful forms of socialization
  • Sport experiences can be understood only when placed in context
  • The behaviors of athletes are understood best when studied in context
studies of socialization as a community cultural process
Studies of Socialization As a Community & Cultural Process
  • Sports are sites for struggling over how we think and what we do
  • Sports are sites where people create and learn “stories” they can use to make sense of the world
  • Sports consist of vocabularies and images that influence ideology
socialization and the formation of ideology
Socialization and the Formation of Ideology
  • Hegemony is the process of forming agreement about particular ways of viewing and making sense of the world
    • Maintaining leadership and control by gaining the consent of other groups, including those being led
  • Sports are important sites for hegemonic processes because they provide pleasurable experiences to so many people
  • Corporate sponsors use sports to establish “ideological outposts” in people’s heads
what socialization research doesn t tell us
What Socialization Research Doesn’t Tell Us
  • How socialization processes operate in the lives of people from various ethnic groups & social classes
  • The dynamics of sport participation careers among young children
  • How people make participation decisions about different types of sports