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  1. Bioinformatics For MNW 2nd Year Jaap Heringa FEW/FALW Integrative Bioinformatics Institute VU (IBIVU) heringa@cs.vu.nl, www.cs.vu.nl/~ibivu, Tel. 47649, Rm R4.41

  2. Current Bioinformatics Unit • Jens Kleinjung (1/11/02) • Victor Simosis – PhD (1/12/02) • Radek Szklarczyk - PhD (1/01/03)

  3. Bioinformatics course 2nd year MNW spring 2003 • Pattern recognition • Supervised/unsupervised learning • Types of data, data normalisation, lacking data • Search image • Similarity/distance measures • Clustering • Principal component analysis • Discriminant analysis

  4. Bioinformatics course 2nd year MNW spring 2003 • Protein • Folding • Structure and function • Protein structure prediction • Secondary structure • Tertiary structure • Function • Post-translational modification • Prot.-Prot. Interaction -- Docking algorithm • Molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo

  5. Bioinformatics course 2nd year MNW spring 2003 • Sequence analysis • Pairwise alignment • Dynamic programming (NW, SW, shortcuts) • Multiple alignment • Combining information • Database/homology searching (Fasta, Blast, Statistical issues-E/P values)

  6. Bioinformatics course 2nd year MNW spring 2003 • Gene structure and gene finding algorithms • Genomics • Expression data, Nucleus to ribosome, translation, etc. • Proteomics, Metabolomics, Physiomics • Databases • DNA, EST • Protein sequence (SwissProt) • Protein structure (PDB) • Microarray data • Proteomics • Mass spectrometry/NMR/X-ray

  7. Bioinformatics course 2nd year MNW spring 2003 • Bioinformatics method development • Programming and scripting languages • Web solutions • Computational issues • NP-complete problems • CPU, memory, storage problems • Parallel computing • Bioinformatics method usage/application • Molecular viewers (RasMol, MolMol, etc.)

  8. Gathering knowledge Rembrandt, 1632 • Anatomy, architecture • Dynamics, mechanics • Informatics (Cybernetics – Wiener, 1948) (Cybernetics has been defined as the science of control in machines and animals, and hence it applies to technological, animal and environmental systems) • Genomics, bioinformatics Newton, 1726

  9. Bioinformatics Chemistry Biology Molecular biology Mathematics Statistics Bioinformatics Computer Science Informatics Medicine Physics

  10. Bioinformatics “Studying informational processes in biological systems” (Hogeweg, early 1970s) • No computers necessary • Back of envelope OK “Information technology applied to the management and analysis of biological data” (Attwood and Parry-Smith) Applying algorithms with mathematical formalisms in biology (genomics) -- USA

  11. Bioinformatics in the olden days • Close to Molecular Biology: • (Statistical) analysis of protein and nucleotide structure • Protein folding problem • Protein-protein and protein-nucleotide interaction • Many essential methods were created early on (BG era) • Protein sequence analysis (pairwise and multiple alignment) • Protein structure prediction (secondary, tertiary structure)

  12. Bioinformatics in the olden days (Cont.) • Evolution was studied and methods created • Phylogenetic reconstruction (clustering – NJ method

  13. But then the big bang….

  14. The Human Genome -- 26 June 2000

  15. The Human Genome -- 26 June 2000 Dr. Craig Venter Celera Genomics -- Shotgun method Sir John Sulston Human Genome Project

  16. Human DNA • There are about 3bn (3  109) nucleotides in the nucleus of almost all of the trillions (3.5  1012 ) of cells of a human body (an exception is, for example, red blood cells which have no nucleus and therefore no DNA) – a total of ~1022 nucleotides! • Many DNA regions code for proteins, and are called genes (1 gene codes for 1 protein in principle) • Human DNA contains ~30,000 expressed genes • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) comprises 4 different types of nucleotides: adenine (A), thiamine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). These nucleotides are sometimes also called bases

  17. Human DNA (Cont.) • All people are different, but the DNA of different people only varies for 0.2% or less. So, only 2 letters in 1000 are expected to be different. Over the whole genome, this means that about 3 million letters would differ between individuals. • The structure of DNA is the so-called double helix, discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953, where the two helices are cross-linked by A-T and C-G base-pairs (nucleotide pairs – so-called Watson-Crick base pairing).

  18. Modern bioinformatics is closely associated with genomics • The aim is to solve the genomics information problem • Ultimately, this should lead to biological understanding how all the parts fit (DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites) and how they interact (gene regulation, gene expression, protein interaction, metabolic pathways, protein signalling, etc.) • More in the next lecture…