CARDIOLOGY MODULE-2 ND YEAR - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CARDIOLOGY MODULE-2 ND YEAR

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  1. CARDIOLOGY MODULE-2ND YEAR JOHN N. HAMATY D.O. PROGRAM DIRECTOR

  2. INTRODUCTION • COURSE OUTLINE • OBJECTIVES • LECTURE MATERIAL • FINAL EXAM

  3. INTRODUCTION John Hamaty, D.O. FACC, FACOI CONTACT INFORMATION: 3001 Chapel Ave, Suite 101 Cherry Hill NJ 08002 TEL: (856) 755-1173 EMAIL: cardiologyfellowship@sjhg.org

  4. CARDIAC EXAM

  5. INSPECTION OF THE CHEST • FIRST PART OF ANY PHYSICAL • STANDING, SITTING AND LYING • CHEST MORPHOLOGY • CARDIOVASCULAR PULSATIONS-APEX

  6. PALPATION • RIGHT SIDE OF SUPINE PATIENT • USE FINGERTIPS • TIME USING SIMULTANEOUS PALPATION OF THE CAROTID PULSE • CHEST EXPOSED AND 30 DEGREES WITH PATIENT LATERAL DECUB.

  7. CARDIAC AUSCULTATION

  8. GENERAL PRINCIPLES • VIBRATIONS ON THE SURFACE OF CHEST SET INTO MOTION A COLUMN OF AIR THAT IS COLLECTED AND CONDUCTED TO THE EAR BY THE STETHOSCOPE

  9. STETHOSCOPE • THE MOST EFFECTIVE STETHOSCOPES ARE MADE OF PLASTIC TUBING 10-12 INCHES LONG WITH INTERNAL DIAMETER OF 1/8 IN. • BELL AND DIAPHRAGM TO COLLECT SOUND.

  10. STETHOSCOPE • HIGH-FREQUENCY SOUNDS-S1 AND S2, SYSTOLIC CLICKS AND HIGH-PITCHED MURMURS ARE HEARD BEST WITH THE DIAPHRAGM. • THE BELL IS APPLIED LIGHTLY TO CHEST TO PREVENT AMBIENT NOISE • BELL IS FOR LOW FREQUENCY-3RD AND 4TH SOUNDS, DIASTOLIC MURMURS.

  11. HEART SOUNDS • FIRST HEART SOUND: Occurs before palpable arterial upstroke of the carotid and can be distinguished from S2, which occurs immediately after peak of carotid pulse Heard best medial to apex at lower left sternal border.

  12. FIRST HEART SOUND • TWO COMPONENTS • INITIAL COMPONENT IS THE MOST PROMINENT AT THE APEX. THIS REPRESENTS MITRAL VALVE CLOSURE. • SECOND PORTION OF S1 IS CLOSURE OF TRICUSPID VALVE AND HEARD BEST AT 4TH LEFT INTERCOSTAL SPACE.

  13. FIRST HEART SOUND • OPENING OF THE AORTIC AND PULMONIC VALVES ALSO OCCURS DURING S1 BUT IS USUALLY SILENT. • USUALLY A SINGLE SOUND. IT CAN BE SPLIT, ACCUNTUATED OR PARADOXICALLY SPLIT IN CERTAIN DISEASE STATES.

  14. THE SECOND HEART SOUND • THE FIRST COMPONENT AORTIC VALVE CLOSURE • THE SECOND COMPONENT IS PULMONIC VALVE CLOSURE • INSPIRATORY SPLITTING OF S2 IS DUE TO DELAY IN PULMONIC COMPONENT