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Effect-to-Cause Model (Production Model). Basic Idea → Desired Effect (define process message) Medium Requirements ← Desired Effect Content, Production, People, (cause) Pre,Production , Post (cause ) → Message Actually R eceived Degree of Success ↙

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effect to cause model production model
Effect-to-Cause Model (Production Model)

Basic Idea→Desired Effect

(define process message)

Medium Requirements ←Desired Effect

Content, Production, People,


Pre,Production, Post (cause) →Message Actually


Degree of Success ↙

Real Effect & Evaluation

effect to cause model
Effect-to-Cause Model
  • Formative evaluation is the evaluation of each production phase while the production is in progress.
  • Summative evaluation is the final evaluation of the finished production and its actual effect on the audience.
production phases
Production Phases
  • Preproduction: including all the planning and coordination of details before the actual production activities.
  • Production: encoding or translating the original program objective into a series of video segments + the coordination of production and technical people and the operation of the production equipment.
  • Postproduction: assembling the shots and the scenes into a coherent whole — the video program.
preproduction generating ideas on demand
Preproduction: Generating Ideas On Demand
  • Brainstorming: a form of “conceptual blockbusting” that ignores or breaks down traditional barriers to creative expression. All ideas are equally valid. Their relevance to the basic idea is determined later in the review session.
  • Clustering: starting with a central idea and then branches out in various directions.
  • Successful brainstorming and clustering depend on a free, intuitive, and noncritical flow of ideas.
about brainstorming
About Brainstorming
  • It is best done with several people.
  • You start out with a general idea or related image and let everybody call out whatever springs to mind.
  • It’s important to let all minds roam freely and pass judgment on any of the ideas, however irrelevant they may seem.
  • Document all ideas by either recording them on audiotape or writing them down.
  • In the review stage, recite the list of comments several times to discover novel connections.
  • Program Objective: describing the desired communication effect on the viewer. Exactly what is it that you want the audience to know, feel, or do?
  • Angle: describing the specific approach to the story, a point of view of the event.
  • Evaluation: is it worth doing? Is it doable?
  • Script: various script formats
preproduction from idea to script
Preproduction: From Idea to Script

Is it worth doing?

→ → → →


Program objective




Is it doable?

preproduction from script to production
Preproduction: From Script to Production


→ → → →

↓ ↓




Technical personnel

Facilities and equipment


Art director

Floor plan


production teams
Production Teams
  • Nontechnical Production Personnel

e.g. Executive producer, Producer, Director,

Actor, Writer, Art director…

  • Technical Production Personnel

e.g. Technical director, Lighting director,

Camera operators, Video editor…

script formats
Script Formats
  • Fact, or Rundown, Sheet

It normally lists the major features of a product that the host should mention, although the presentation itself is ad-libbed.

  • Two-column A/V Script

It may be used for a variety of nondramatic programs, such as interviews, cooking shows, or commercials.

  • Single-column Drama Script

It contains the complete dialogue, narration over video, and all major action cues.

  • Image
  • Sound
  • Context
  • Sequence
  • Storyboard Exercise: Tom excitedly bought his 1st stamp at the post office.
  • Floor Plan: specifying the set and the props, facilitating the blocking of talent and cameras, helping determine the basic lighting and audio requirements.
  • 廣告是打破成規的藝術,而非建立定律的科學。





Break the rules

Research & study

Understand your client, competitor, market…

5 w 2 h of designing a c f
5 W 2 H of Designing a C.F.
  • Why to say: the purpose
  • How much to say: the budget
  • Whom to say: the target audience

demographic & psychographic

  • What to say: the message
  • How to say: the structure, form, style
  • When to say: timing
  • Where to say:media, channels,
  • platforms
rosser reeve advocates unique selling proposition
Rosser Reeve advocates“Unique Selling Proposition”

1. 每一個廣告都必須對消費者提出一個銷售


得到什麼樣的好處或利益。Benefits &


2. 這項主張必須是競爭對手不能提出或未曾

提出,它必須具有獨特性。Unique,The One


3. 此項主張必須強而有力,以廣為招攬並吸


branding character
廣告之品牌個性Branding Character
  • 產品品牌與人一樣必須具備獨特明確的個性,才能令人印象深刻。
  • Branding → Distinctive Characters.
  • 在廣告的執行上,品牌個性是藉由非語言符號的 tone & manner以詮釋之。
  • Characters expressed by tone & manner.
  • Tone & Manner 是抽象的、感覺的、不易具體描述說明的。以電視廣告為例指的是:旁白的語法、口氣、抑揚頓挫、急促程度、佈景的設計、色調、光線明暗、演員的選擇、演繹方式、音樂的曲調、節奏、服裝的質料與形式…..等等。Styles and choices of voice-over, music, performance, costume, set/prop, lighting, color…
basic image of formation
Basic Image of Formation
  • Scanning Process

Interlaced scanning:

The electron beam first scans all the odd-numbered lines, from left to right and from top to bottom. This first scanning cycle produces one field. The beam jumps back to the top and scans all the even-numbered lines. This second scanning cycle produces a second field. The two fields make up a complete television picture, called a frame.

  • 1080i system
basic image of formation1
Basic Image of Formation
  • Scanning Process

Progressive scanning:

The electronic beam scans each line from left to right and from top to bottom. This scanning cycle produces one complete frame. The beam then jumps back to the top to start a new scanning cycle to produce another complete frame.

  • 480p system
  • 720p system
analog and digital signals
Analog and Digital Signals
  • An analog signal is an electrical copy of the original stimulus, such as somebody’s singing into a microphone.
  • The digital signal is purposely discontinuous. It takes the analog signal and selects points at equal intervals.
  • Digital usually refers to the binary system in which data are represented in the form of on/off pulses.
digital system digitizing process
Digital System, Digitizing Process
  • Sampling: a number of samples are taken of the analog video or audio signal at equally spaced intervals. ↑sampling rate ↑signals
  • Quantizing: it changes the sampling points into discrete numerical values (0’s and 1’s) by giving each point a specific number.
  • Compression: it includes the temporary rearrangement or elimination of all data that are not absolutely necessary for preserving the original quality of the video and audio signals for storage and signal transport.