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The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population growth in the early decades of the new nation. Standard 6. a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.

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Standard 6

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The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population growth in the early decades of the new nation.

Standard 6


a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.

northwest ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
  • The first U.S. governmental territory outside the original states
    • The Northwest Territory
      • Created by the Northwest Ordinance
  • Demonstrated that the national government intended to encourage westward expansion
    • Would do so by organizing new states that would be equal members of the Union
northwest ordinance1
Northwest Ordinance
  • It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory
    • This law made the Ohio River the boundary between free and slave regions between the 13 states and the Mississippi River
  • Mandated the establishment of public schools in the Northwest Territory

b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.

louisiana purchase
Louisiana Purchase
  • In the early 1800s, President Thomas Jefferson sent James Monroe to France
    • To negotiate the purchase of the important port city of New Orleans
    • Napoleon controlled New Orleans and much of the land west of the Mississippi River
louisiana purchase1
Louisiana Purchase
  • In 1803, Napoleon agreed to sell not only New Orleans but also the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million
    • As a result, the United States nearly doubled in geographic area
lewis and clark
Lewis and Clark
  • Jefferson sent:
    • Meriwether Lewis
    • William Clark
      • To explore Louisiana and the western lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean
lewis and clark2
Lewis and Clark
  • On their 16-month expedition, Lewis and Clark:
    • Charted the trails west
    • Mapped rivers and mountain ranges
    • Wrote descriptions
    • Collected samples of unfamiliar animals and plants
    • Recorded facts and figures about the various Native American tribes and customs west of the Mississippi River

c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the development of a national identity.

war of 1812 causes
War of 1812 (Causes)
  • In 1812, America declared war on Great Britain
    • Which was already at war with France
war of 1812 causes1
War of 1812 (Causes)
  • Among the causes of this war, four stand out
    • Britain was preventing neutral American merchants from trading with the French
    • Americans were outraged by the British policy of impressment
      • American sailors were forced to serve in the British navy after their merchant ships were captured
    • Americans suspected the British were giving military support to Native Americans
      • Hoping they would fight to keep Americans from settling lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
    • Wished to drive the British out of North America altogether
      • By conquering Canada while the British army was fighting the French in Europe
war of 1812 battles
War of 1812 (Battles)
  • The British burned Washington, D.C. in 1814
    • It was in retaliation for the Americans attacking and burning parts of Canada
    • Dolly Madison collected valuable artifacts and papers from the White House
war of 1812 battles1
War of 1812 (Battles)
  • During the Battle of Ft. McHenry, Baltimore lawyer Francis Scott Key watched the British attack the fort
  • While watching in amazement as the American flag stood tall during the battle
    • Key wrote a poem which later became our national anthem
war of 1812 battles2
War of 1812 (Battles)
  • During the Battle of New Orleans (last major) Andrew Jackson led a group of criminals, thugs, pirates, American soldiers, and Native Americans to a victory over the British
    • On a hill overlooking the Gulf of Mexico and the Port of New Orleans, Jackson’s men picked off wave after wave of British soldiers
    • The treaty to end the war, had already been signed before the battle of New Orleans even began
      • Neither Jackson, nor the British knew of the Treaty
war of 1812 results
War of 1812 (Results)
  • Ended of all U.S. military hostility with Great Britain
    • Never again would Britain and the United States wage war over diplomacy, trade, territory, or any other kind of dispute
  • America’s army and navy were firmly established as worthy opponents of any European military force
    • The U.S. military achievements in the War of 1812 also served to heighten nationalist sentiments

d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nation’s infrastructure.

national infrastructure
National Infrastructure
  • Many families moved west of the Appalachian Mountains to claim land in the new American territories stretching to the Mississippi River
    • Their travel was difficult, taking a week to cross the distance a car might drive today in a few hours
    • In response, private companies built the young nation’s roads and waterways
      • These roads were often turnpikes, or toll roads, which travelers paid a fee to use
      • In turn, these fees were used to pay for upkeep of the new roads
national infrastructure1
National Infrastructure
  • Where roads could not be built, barges were used on rivers to carry people and goods
  • Soon a new invention, the steamboat, enabled people to buy a ticket from private companies that operated the boats
  • Lastly, in the wilderness where rivers did not run and roads could not be built, government leaders joined businesspeople to build canals
    • Artificial rivers
erie canal
Erie Canal
  • The most famous canal built in this era was the Erie Canal
    • Connected the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. It was opened in 1825 after eight years of digging by thousands of laborers
    • It stretches 363 miles from Lake Erie to the Hudson River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean at New York City
the erie canal
The Erie Canal
  • The Erie Canal served as a turnpike for barges where a road could not easily be built
    • It greatly lowered transportation costs
    • This not only opened up western New York and regions further west to increased settlement
      • It also helped unite new regions with the Atlantic states
rise of new york city
Rise of New York City
  • Until 1790, New York City was the capital of the United States
    • In the early 1800s, civic development turned this colonial town into a great economic center established on a grid of city blocks
    • By 1835, the population had grown so large that New York City outpaced Philadelphia as the largest U.S. city
rise of new york city1
Rise of New York City
  • Trade grew when the Erie Canal made the city’s harbors the link between European merchants and the great agricultural markets across the Appalachians
  • The city was home to the biggest gathering of artisans and crafts workers in the United States
    • Its banking and commercial activities would soon make it the leading city in all of North America
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • 1823, President James Monroe warned the nations of Europe not to meddle in the politics of North and South America
    • A group of European countries planned to help each other recapture American colonies that had gained independence
monroe doctrine5
Monroe Doctrine
  • Said the United States would prevent European nations from interfering with independent American countries
    • Also, the United States would remain neutral in wars between European nations and their American colonies
    • But, if battles took place in the New World, the United States would view such battles as hostile actions against the United States
  • In summary, the Monroe Doctrine defined an aspect of U.S. foreign policy to which America still holds today