INTRODUCTION TO VALUES EDUCATION Michael Arthus G. Muega , Ph. D.Lecturer/Coordinator College of Education, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, DISP 2009
What is Values? • Values are our means of earning, maintaining, or increasing something or certain things.
What is Education? • Education means knowledge, values, skills, critical thinking, problem solving and creativity.
What is Values Education? Values Education is a product of human activity that involves teaching and learning. This does not mean that there should always be an encounter between two or more persons.
Values education, that is to say, does not require the presence of at least one teacher and at least another one pupil. For anyone can be his/her own teacher and his/her own pupil.
Values education, in one of its broad senses, could be said to be a human activity whose chief aims include turning out people:
(1) who could tell right from wrong, (2)who know why something is right or otherwise, and (3)who would do the right thing.
Some Theories of Morality INSTRUMENTALISM – is a suggestion that right and wrong are determined with reference to the consequences of a certain belief and its application.
FUNCTIONALISM – suggests that everything, including human beings is defined by a certain inherent function or purpose.
RBEC or Revitalized Basic Education Curriculum • Makabayan • Makatao • Makakalikasan • Maka-Diyos
Values Education • Pre-Spanish Era • Spanish Era • American Era • Japanese Era • Post-Japanese & American Era • Martial Law Period • Post-Martial Law Period
Social Values evolve according to the demands and requirements or dictates of forces that are also changing together with the environment through the passage of time.
What sort of things do you think could be affected by a change in societal values?
Change in the components of the educational system • School curriculum • Instructional materials • Training of teachers • Instructional processes • Educational administration • Assessment procedures, etc.
Can you think of things that may have been of high value as far back as the time before Magellan came into the picture? • Family itself • Family values
1. Pre-Spanish Philippines • no formal politics • no religious or formal educational institutions • no formal laws • better trading
Some valued things during this time: • survival skills (e.g. hunting skills) • diplomatic skills to maintain peace co-existence with other communities
2. Spanish Era (1521-1898) • Churches • Parochial schools • Political and economic institutions
Some valued things during this time: • Moral and spiritual values according to a religious system • Submissive reverence to accepted authority figures • Refusal to submit to colonizers and autonomy
3. American Occupation(1898-1946) • New political structures and socioeconomic ideologies • Citizenship • Civics, character education, good manners and right conduct were included in the • Educational program • Religious instruction became optional
Some valued things during this time: • Freedom to choose religion • Submissive reverence to accepted authorities • Patriotism, loyalty, values of self-reliance, national unity (Phil. Commonwealth; Quezon introduced code of ethics for Filipinos; 1935-1946) • Refusal to submit to colonizers and autonomy
4. Japanese Occupation (1942-1945) • Japanese government introduced the Far East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
Some valued things during this time: • submissive reverence to accepted authorities • refusal to submit to foreign power and autonomy
Post-Japanese & American Era (Liberation Period) • Character and moral education were introduced for the purpose of moral reconstruction
6. Martial Law Period • Educational Development Act of 1972 required maximum contribution toward the attainment of national goals, some of which is advancement of Philippine economy, moral progress, heightened national consciousness, and promotion of desirable cultural values • Refusal to submit to the claimed authority of the authoritarian
7. Post-Martial Law Period • EDSA Revolution I inspired many Filipinos to place a premium on justice, liberty, peace, and respect for human rights.
1987 Constitution • “All schools should inculcate patriotism and nationalism; foster love of humanity; respect for human rights; appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country; teacher the rights and duties of citizenship; strengthen ethnic and spiritual values; develop moral character and personal discipline; encourage critical and creative thinking; broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency.”
Values Education at the Elementary School Level • Reinforcement of desirable Philippine traditional values and reinforcement of values which bind Filipinos together into one nation that is strong and indivisible
Such values were classified based on the Filipinos’ perceived relation • (1) to their country, • (2) to their individual selves, • (3) to other people, and • (4) to God.
Values development was taught in Civics and Culture, Geography/History/ Civics, and the period for character building activities for all grades every morning.
Strategies which are intended to give rise to learned behavior are the following: • inculcation • moral development • values clarification • evocation • action learning approach, and • problem-solving approaches
Values Education at the Secondary School Level • The 7 basic subjects of the curriculum are Communication Arts in English, Communication Arts in Filipino, Social Studies, Science, Math, Practical Arts, and Youth Development Training. All of these are instruments to teach values.
Strategies and approaches include: • values integration approach • direct teaching • indirect approach • values clarification • modular approach, and • other approaches employed in elementary
Values Education at the Tertiary Level of Formal Education • No prescribed values education for college students, except in the Bachelor for Secondary Education curriculum.
Here Values Education is a major field of specialization where the following are taught: • Philippines value system • preferred and desirable values/beliefs, and • values modification/ adoption/orientation towards development
Teaching strategies here are similar to the ones that are used in elementary and secondary schools. But at this level, Values Education may include studies on Filipino values. Such studies may be conducted using different methods (e.g. case studies, observation, analysis of language form)
Facts within the past few yearsSchool Year 2005-2006 12,913,845 pupils were in primary schools 931,383 pupils were in private schools
6,267,015 students were in secondary schools 1,287,985 students were in private schools
Almost half of the primary school students were not be able to proceed to the secondary school • A significant majority of secondary school students were not able to proceed to the tertiary level of schooling
Fifty-one (51%) of Filipinos have only had elementary education, and only 14.3 percent of rural poor Filipinos graduate from high school or have higher educational attainment.
In addition, results of the nationally administered National Elementary Achievement Test 3 years ago showed that students gave correct answers to less 50 percent of the questions.