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STIFF NECK. Definition:. Pain or discomfort when trying to turn or move the neck. TYPES:. Postural Atlanto -axial Spasmodic Torticollis Hysterical Torticollis Stiff neck as a result of muscles. 1. Postural. Secondary to auditory and visual disturbances.

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Presentation Transcript
definition
Definition:
  • Pain or discomfort when trying to turn or move the neck.
types
TYPES:
  • Postural
  • Atlanto-axial
  • Spasmodic Torticollis
  • Hysterical Torticollis
  • Stiff neck as a result of muscles
1 postural
1. Postural
  • Secondary to auditory and visual disturbances.
2 atlanto axial rotation fixation
2. Atlanto-axial rotation fixation
  • Due totorticolliswhich is still present.

Condition in which the head becomes persistently turned to one side.

3 spasmodic torticollis
3. Spasmodic torticollis
  • Patients experience repeated attacks of painless rotation or lateral flexion of the head.
  • Gradual onset from age 40.
  • Most common movement= rotation to the left side.

MOBILISATION DOES NOT PLAY A ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THESE PATIENTS.

4 hysterical torticollis
4. Hysterical torticollis
  • Repeated movements while the patient moves the head to one side
5 stiff neck as result of muscles
5. Stiff neck as result of muscles
  • Post traumatic,
  • Post viral and;
  • torticollis
history
HISTORY

Painless contracture of 1 of sternocleidomastoid muscles

Neck fixates in side flexion-towards affected side + rotation away from it.

Lack of treatment= patient developing a permanent postural deformity + facial asymmetry

causes
Causes:

Identified by means of X-ray, MRI or CT

  • Injury
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Pinched nerve
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Muscle spasm
  • Meningitis
treatment
Treatment:
  • DEPENDANT ON CAUSE

Include:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain.
  • A cervical collar to keep the neck still so that muscles can rest.
  • Limitation of activities that could strain the neck.
  • Physiotherapy
treatment continued
Treatment Continued:
  • Massage
  • Ice or heat therapies.
  • Maintaining a good posture

Advice for at home:

  • Patient should sleep on a firm mattress and designed neck pillow or without a pillow.
acute cervical locking locked joint
Acute Cervical Locking (“locked joint”)
  • Onset of a sudden, sharp pain near the midline of the cervical spine on the affected side that appears as a result of an unguarded movement and that is accompanied immediately by an inability to return the head to a straight position.
characteristics
Characteristics:
  • Occurs mainly in adolescence
  • Sudden onset
  • Snapping sound is heard
  • Sudden uncontrolled movement
  • Patient may be awakened by the pain
  • Most common between C2/3
  • Synovial pinching
  • Localised to mid-cervical area
  • Severe, sharp pain with proximal referral if the patient should try to move out of the position.
  • Noticeable lateral flexion, slight flexion/rotation away from pain-commen protective deformity.

CAUSE

treatment1
Treatment:
  • Unlock the joint as soon as possible (try).
  • Use longitudinal movement in the position of deformity, rotation and lateral flexion-Grade IV- to IV to open side that is locked.

TECHNIQUES

    • Longitudinal cephalad
    • Rotation away from pain
    • Transverse thrust manipulation
  • Joint must be unlocked on day 1.
  • Pain still present on day 2- treatment directed towards relieving pain, muscle spasm + regaining full joint mobility.
traumatic onset
Traumatic onset:
  • Mostly affects
    • Atlanto-occipital
    • Atlanto-axial

History

Bump against the head

Patient has unilateral sub-occipital pain + movement towards painful side. Lateral flexion and rotation feels stiff.

treatment2
Treatment:

MAITLAND MOBILISATIONS

  • If not unlocked on day 1
    • Manipulation
    • Strengthening
    • Reduce muscle spasm.
discogenic locked neck
Discogenic locked neck
  • Gradual onset
  • No specific movement
  • May awake with locked neck
  • Any level between C2-C7
  • Disc
  • Neck pain
  • Worst pain-medial, scapulae area (Clowards area’s)
  • Deep pain
  • Noticeable flexion, lateral flexion away from pain
  • Extension, lateral flexion and rotation towards the painful side is stiff but not blocked
causes1
Causes:
  • Prolonged poor posture
  • Repetitive neck movements
  • Slouching
  • Heavy lifting with poor technique
  • Poor posture during sleeping
  • Neck joint stiffness
  • A sedentary lifestyle
  • muscle weakness or tightness
  • a lifestyle or occupation involving large amounts of sitting (particularly at a computer or driving), bending, slouching or heavy lifting

Prolonged repetitive movements stretch tissue in the neck over time, predisposing the facet joint to injury.

May originate from traumatic hyperextension injuries e.g. whiplash

treatment3
Treatment:
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications
  • Corticosteroid injections into facet joints
  • Physiotherapy:
    • Intermittend constant traction (ICCT)
    • Transverse movement
    • Unilateral PA
    • Rotation and lateral flexion
    • Longitudinal caudad
    • Grade I, II and IV-
    • TENS
    • ice/heat modalities
literature acute cervical locking
Literature: Acute Cervical Locking
  • Literature clearly highlighted the success of manipulations and Maitland’s mobilisation techniques, as well as the combination of the two in treating acute cervical locking.
  • The preferred techniques are described as well as importance placed on accurate assessment of patients before treatment
  • There is also a clear explanation of the differences between acute cervical locking and cervical spondylosis.
references
References:

McCoy, K. 2009. Stiff Neck: A Look At Possible Causes.

www.EverydayHealth.com

Retrieved on 16 July 2012

Sprague, R. B. 1983. The Acute Cervical Joint Lock. Journal of the American Physiotherapy Association 63: 1439-1444.

Kirpalani, D. and Mitra, R. 2008. Cervical Facet Joint Dysfunction: A Review. Division on the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:770-773.