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The Enlightenment

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  1. The Enlightenment

  2. A. Introduction to the Enlightenment • 1600’s -1700’s- period in Europe known as the Age of the Enlightenment or “The Age of Reason” 1. The Early Enlightenment a. Philosophes- the thinkers of the Enlightenment • 5 main ideas to their philosophy • Reason • Nature • Happiness • Progress • Liberty

  3. Thomas Hobbes- English philosopher who came up with the idea of a social contract a. the contract meant that people would give up their freedom b. best form of a government was an absolute monarchy c. believed chaos would occur without an absolute monarchy

  4. 3. John Locke Enlightenment influenced by his ideas Believed people had a natural ability to govern their own affairs & look after the welfare of society Government should protect 3 natural rights: right to life, liberty, and property Published Two Treaties of Government Jefferson based Declaration of Independence on Locke’s ideas

  5. 4. Activity in Paris a. Paris- most active city in the Enlightenment b. Salons- social gatherings with engaging conversation - hosted by wealthy & influential women

  6. 1. Montesquieu a. Believed strongly in the British government & the idea of separating government’s powers b. 3 Branches executive branch- king carried out & enforced laws legislative- Parliament had lawmaking power judicial- interpreted laws & judged when they were broken -became the basis for the United States Constitution B. Three French Giant Philosophes

  7. 2. Voltaire a. During his youth, spent 2 prison terms in Bastille for libel & mocking the church b. Exiled to England c. Wrote works that advocated free thought and tolerance - most famous work was Candide Denis Diderot- a. editor & writer of the Encyclopedia - not supported by the Catholic Church - 28 volumes in total, completed in 1772

  8. Marquis de Condorcet • 1743-1794 • French Philosopher • Voting tally where contestants beat each other in a run off. • Constitutionalism • Public Education • Women’s rights

  9. 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau-wrote The Social Contract a. Believed a legitimate govt. ruled with the consent of its people - believed people should be dominant not the monarchs C. Other Philosophes of the Enlightenment

  10. 2. Adam Smith Supported the concept of laissez-faire Wrote The Wealth of Nations c. Believed the government had 3 roles: protect society from invasion, defend citizens from injustice, & keep up public works citizens couldn’t afford

  11. Mary Wollstonecraft- *considered the first feminist *argued for women’s rights and the rights to participate in government *wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women

  12. 1. Baroque- (odd) style of music that dev. during the late 1600’s & early 1700’s a. noted for its drama & complexity b. 2 musical techniques (fugue & counterpoint) c. Johann Sebastian Bach & George Fredrick Handel D. New Forms Dominate Music Johann Sebastian Bach

  13. 2. Classical (1750-1820)- unity, clarity, & balance a. symphony, concerto dominate music b. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart- child prodigy who began composing music at age of 5, operas are still preformed today c. Joseph Haydn- wrote superior symphonies for strings and woodwinds, “father of symphony” d. Beethoven- greatest European composer of all time, carried music into the age of romanticism Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

  14. E. Leaders Initiate Reform 1. Enlightened despots- monarchs who attempted to practice some of the political ideas of the Enlightenment -aimed to rule according to principles of the Enlightenment while maintaining traditional royal powers • Fredrick II of Prussia, Maria Theresa, Joseph II 2. deism: religious philosophy based on reason

  15. F. The End of the Enlightenment 1. Ended with the Age of Romanticism a. cultural movement that celebrated emotion and the individual b. lower classes were inspired by Rousseau & began demanding more rights