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The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment. Belief in the supremacy of reason over pleasure; conviction that humans could perfect society through the application of the intellect to human affairs Science takes its place for the first time. The Philosophes. Thinkers who advocated reason

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the enlightenment2
The Enlightenment
  • Belief in the supremacy of reason over pleasure; conviction that humans could perfect society through the application of the intellect to human affairs
  • Science takes its place for the first time
the philosophes
The Philosophes
  • Thinkers who advocated reason
  • Paris: center of the movement
  • Search for universal laws in human affairs
  • Scorned superstition, Christianity: Voltaire
  • Encyclopedia--All human knowledge: Diderot
  • Deism: God created universe to operate rationally
rousseau
Rousseau
  • Most popular of the Enlightenment
  • Natural goodness of humans; value of freedom and equality
  • Respect for humans in nature: Native Am.
  • Concept of “general will”
  • Flaws in society and institution cause social injustice
rococo style
Rococo Style
  • Softer, more delicate style than Baroque
  • Rocaille: shell-like decoration used in gardens.
  • Art as happy, witty, frivolous, playful
the salons
The Salons
  • Social gathering: dining, entertainment, conversation
  • Wealthy women
  • Mme. Geoffrin: Rousseau, Diderot
  • Helped finance Encyclopedia
  • Discussion of ideas and events
the art of rococo
The Art of Rococo
  • Watteau: Gersaint’s Signboard
  • Fragonard’s The Swing
  • Vigee-Lebrun: Self-Portrait with Her Daughter (Friend of Marie-Antoinette)
mozart and opera
Mozart and Opera
  • Independent musician: no patron
  • Began at age 6. Composed more than 600 works: 20 operas and 41 symphonies
  • Joseph II of Austria sponsored him
  • Balance of music and drama in opera
  • The Marriage of Figaro; Don Giovanni; The Magic Flute
the bourgeois response
The Bourgeois Response
  • Figaro based on a French play.
  • Condemned aristocratic privilege
  • Middle class gained influence
  • Art reflected their moral attitudes
the bourgeois style in painting
The Bourgeois Style in Painting
  • Greuze: The Bride of the Village
  • Chardin: Boy Spinning Top
  • Middle class values
the rise of the novel
The Rise of the Novel
  • Epistolary novels
  • Novels of manners: Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility
the neoclassical style
The Neoclassical Style
  • Style of the later eighteenth century that imitated the art of ancient Greece and Rome
neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical Architecture
  • The Petit Trianon, Versailles
  • Influence of Palladio
  • Thomas Jefferson: Ambassador to France
  • Monticello in Virginia
neoclassical painting
Neoclassical Painting
  • Jacques-Louis David: Oath of the Horatii
  • 1784: Painting embodied leading principles of neoclassicism: didactic purpose, purity of form, and deep passion restrained by good taste.
  • Revolt against rococo
  • David involved in French Revolution
  • Lictors Bearing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons : Civic duty higher than love
the classical symphony
The Classical Symphony
  • Order, proportion, harmony
  • Haydn: Symphony--4 movements--sonata form( three-part structure still used today)
  • Mozart: ability to create effortless transitions between sections and build symmetrical structure for his music
the age of satire
The Age of Satire
  • Aims to improve society by humorous criticism
  • Attacks on social ills
jonathan swift
Jonathan Swift
  • A Modest Proposal recommended that poor Irish children be butchered, roasted and served for Sunday dinners. It would reduce population and provide income.
  • Gulliver’s Travels Horses put humans to shame. Mocked humans as Yahoos
  • Not convinced of human decency
satire and society in art
Satire and Society in Art
  • Hogarth’s Marriage a la Mode mocks social climbers and marriage for money
  • Gainsborough: Mr. and Mrs. Andrews: Vanity of England’s aristocrats
voltaire
Voltaire
  • Opposed evils of religious bigotry and political oppression
  • Candide makes fun of optimists
  • Cultivate your own garden: reject philosophical solutions; cultivate himself, work hard and seek a comfortable and reasonable life.