Emergency Care • Explore Go • Emergency Care (Lessons 1-2)Go • Injury Care Techniques (Lessons 3-6)Go • Shock (Lessons 7-8)Go • Wounds and Burns (Lessons 9-11)Go • Bones and Joints (Lessons 12-13)Go • Foreign Bodies and Poison (Lessons 14-16)Go • Extreme Temperature (Lessons 17-19)Go • Sudden Illness (Lessons 20-25)Go • Reflect Go TABLE OF CONTENTS
Explore • Unit Overview Go • Equipment Go
Explore – Unit Overview In this unit, you will: • Practice a variety of first aid procedures.
Explore – Equipment for Unit Crutches • To prevent injury, know how to adjust the crutches
Explore – Equipment for Unit Types of bandages used in this unit include: • Gauze (pads and roller) • Elastic • Triangular
Emergency Care • 1. Emergency Care Go • 2. Quiz Go
Lesson 1 – Emergencies • An emergency situation occurs when a person suddenly becomes ill or is injured and requires an immediate medical response. • Emergencies can happen at any time.
Lesson 1 – First Aid • In many cases, emergency care may require some form of first aid. • It is important that the general population and all health care workers know how to perform emergency care. • Agencies such as the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association train people to perform these life-saving procedures.
Lesson 1 – Effective First Aid Providers Obtain proper first aid training • Anyone who expects to encounter an emergency situation should be properly trained. • This includes: • Anyone in the medical field • People in jobs that involve child care • Park guides, camp counselors, life guards, etc.
Lesson 1 – Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Be alert for emergency situations • Unusual sounds • Unusual sights • Unusual odors • Unusual behaviors
Lesson 1 – Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Assess the situation before taking action • The first aid provider should have a reason for every action that is taken. • Treatment depends on several factors, including the type of injury, the environment, witnesses, available first aid supplies and equipment, and how quickly medical help will arrive.
Lesson 1 – Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Remain calm in emergency situations and observe safety precautions • If possible, get the patient’s consent before performing any care. • If possible, wash their hands and put on gloves before handling a patient. • Make sure supplies, such as water or bandages, are clean. • If possible, explain the procedure to the patient. • Be careful when lifting heavy objects. • If any solutions come in contact with their skin or eyes, they should immediately flush them with water. • Only perform care that they have been trained to do.
Lesson 1 – Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Perform a safety check of the scene before taking action • Some emergency scenes are unsafe to enter. • Call for help immediately. Prioritize tasks and triage • Triage is a way to prioritize treatment. It determines which patient or which injury is treated first. • Life-threatening injuries should always be attended to first.
Lesson 1 – Principles of Care • Get professional care as soon as possible. • Do not move a patient unless it is required for safety reasons. • Keep the patient calm. • Do not give unconscious or vomiting patients any food or fluids, unless the first aid procedure requires it. • Regulate the patient’s temperature by adding blankets or removing layers of clothing. • Administer first aid quickly and efficiently. • To avoid compromising the patient’s right to privacy, do not attempt to diagnose the patient or discuss the patient’s condition. • Avoid further injury if possible.
Lesson 1 – Emergency Medical Services • Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provides expert care for serious emergencies. • In many areas of the country, immediate help is available by dialing 911. • When calling for help, be sure to give complete and accurate information. • If you cannot call immediately, ask someone else to call for help.
Lesson 1 – Emergency Care Legal Issues • The haste in which emergency care occurs often leaves the caregivers with little or no time to consider the legal consequences of their actions. • Emergency care professionals, other health care workers, and anyone else who has first aid training should be aware of some basic legal issues related to emergency care.
Lesson 1 – The Good Samaritan Acts • The Good Samaritan Acts state that physicians and first responders are not required to acquire patient consent before performing life-saving procedures in the case of an emergency. • All caregivers must follow these basic rules in order to be protected by these Acts: • Give care in good faith. • Act within the scope of their training and knowledge. • Use as much care as possible according to the circumstances. • Do not bill the patient.
Lesson 1 – Scope of Practice • Even a Good Samaritan Act cannot protect caregivers who perform procedures outside of their scope of practice. • Emergency care providers should only perform tasks for which they have been trained.
Lesson 1 – Keeping Records • Emergency care professionals must fill out an event report after each emergency. • This report includes: • The patient’s name and address • The date and time of emergency • The location of emergency • A description of the emergency and its cause • A description of actions taken • The names, addresses, and signatures of any witnesses • The name and signature of the person preparing the report
Lesson 2 – Quiz In this lesson, you will take a quiz on emergency care.
Injury Care Techniques • 3. Dressings and BandagesGo • 4. Slings and SplintsGo • 5. CrutchesGo • 6. QuizGo
Lesson 3 – Dressings • A dressing is a sterile covering for a wound or injury. • Dressings are used to: • stop bleeding • prevent infection • absorb secretions • treat pain • Gauze pads are the most common materials used for dressings. However, in an emergency situation, any clean cloth can be used.
Lesson 3 – Procedure for Dressings In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for dressing an injury.
Lesson 3 – Bandages • A bandage is material used to secure dressings and splints. • Bandages should be tight enough to control bleeding and to hold a dressing in place. However, they should not interrupt blood circulation. • Three popular types of bandages are: • Triangular • Roller gauze • Elastic
Lesson 3 – Triangular Bandages • The triangular bandage is a triangular shape of cloth. It is often used for: • Head and scalp injuries • To create slings for shoulder, arm, wrist, and hand injuries • Triangular bandages can also be folded into cravats, which is a long strip of bandage folded to the proper width according to the injury.
Lesson 3 – Procedure for a Triangular Bandage In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for a triangular bandage.
Lesson 3 – Procedure for a Circular Bandage In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for a circular bandage.
Lesson 3 – Elastic and Roller Gauze Bandages • Elastic and roller gauze bandages are used to secure dressings and to support injured areas. They can be used on just about any part of the body. • Elastic bandages have the advantage of stretching and molding to the body part. • Elastic bandages can also pose a disadvantage because their elasticity makes it easy to wrap an injury too tightly.
Lesson 3 – Procedure for a Spiral Wrap Bandage In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for a spiral wrap bandage.
Lesson 3 – Procedure for a Figure-Eight Ankle Wrap Bandage In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for a figure-eight ankle wrap bandage.
Lesson 3 – Procedure for a Recurrent Wrap Bandage In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for a recurrent wrap bandage.
Lesson 4 – Splints • A splint is a rigid device that supports and immobilizes an injured body part. • Commercial splints work best. However, if none are available, a splint can be created using anything that will support the injured area. • Because you should limit moving an injured body part, do not apply a splint if professional medical help is on the way.
Lesson 4 – Procedure to Make a Splint In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure to make a splint.
Lesson 4 – Slings • A sling is a device used to keep an injured hand, forearm, arm, or shoulder immobilized. • Slings can be used in combination with a cast or used in place of a cast or splint until one can be applied. • Commercial slings are available. However, a sling can be created using a triangular bandage.
Lesson 4 – Procedure to Make a Sling In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure to make a sling.
Lesson 5 – Crutches • Crutches are supports that help a patient ambulate, or walk. • Patients use crutches when they are unable to put weight on an injured or impaired leg, knee, ankle or foot. • It is important that crutches fit the patient properly and are used correctly by the patient.
Lesson 5 – Types of Crutches • Axillary crutches are placed under the axilla, or underarms, with the patient’s weight being applied to the hands. • Likewise, with forearm crutches, a patient inserts arms through holders, grasps handles, and then supports weight on the hands. • Platform crutches are designed for patients who cannot grasp handles or bear weight on their hands.
Lesson 5 – Adjusting Crutches • A gait is a method of walking. • There are several gaits that can be used with crutches. The best gait for a patient is determined based on the injury. • Four-point gait • Three-point gait • Two-point gait • Swing-to gait • Swing-through gait
Lesson 5 – Crutch Gaits • There are several types of crutch gaits. • Four-point • Three-point • Two-point • Swing-to • Swing-through
Lesson 5 – Procedure to Assist a Patient with Crutches In this lesson, you will learn and practice the procedure for assisting patients with crutches.
Lesson 6 – Quiz In this lesson, you will take a quiz on injury care techniques.
Shock • 7. ShockGo • 8. QuizGo
Lesson 7 – Shock • Shock is a reduction of blood flow in the body, particularly to the brain and heart. • Shock often results from physical or emotional trauma. • If left untreated, shock can be fatal, even in cases where the initial injury was not fatal.
Lesson 7 – Causes of Shock • Trauma causes shock. • Types of trauma that can cause shock include: • Hemorrhage • Severe pain • Infection • Heart attack • Stroke • Poison • Lack of oxygen • Dehydration • Psychological trauma
Lesson 7 – Symptoms of Shock • Shock has many symptoms, including: • Pale, blue-gray skin color, especially under the nails and around the mouth • Cool skin • Rapid, weak pulse • Irregular breathing • Low blood pressure • Anxiety or restlessness • Shock symptoms vary from patient to patient.
Lesson 7 – Types of Shock • Anaphylactic Shock • Cardiogenic Shock • Hemorrhagic Shock • Metabolic Shock • Neurogenic Shock • Psychogenic Shock • Respiratory Shock • Septic Shock
Lesson 7 – Treating Shock • Because shock is such a serious condition, the caregiver should begin treatment immediately. • There are several aims for treating shock, including: • Eliminating or controlling the cause of shock • Improving blood flow • Providing oxygen • Regulating body temperature
Lesson 7 – Procedure for Treating Shock In this lesson, you will learn the procedure for treating shock.
Lesson 8 – Quiz In this lesson, you will take a quiz on shock.