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enhanced oil recovery using co 2 the north sea an opportunity jon gluyas durham energy institute uk n.
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Enhanced oil recovery using CO 2 The North Sea, an Opportunity? Jon Gluyas Durham Energy Institute, UK PowerPoint Presentation
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Enhanced oil recovery using CO 2 The North Sea, an Opportunity? Jon Gluyas Durham Energy Institute, UK

Enhanced oil recovery using CO 2 The North Sea, an Opportunity? Jon Gluyas Durham Energy Institute, UK

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Enhanced oil recovery using CO 2 The North Sea, an Opportunity? Jon Gluyas Durham Energy Institute, UK

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  1. Enhanced oil recovery using CO2 The North Sea, an Opportunity?Jon GluyasDurham Energy Institute, UK Carbon Capture & Storage, Geological Society of London - 15th September 2010 -

  2. Outline CO2-EOR – a long history UK oil reserves UKCS – the EOR prize UK industrial CO2 production Project timing Costing the earth & saving the planet The CO2-EOR heritage

  3. CO2-EOR – A Long History Initiated 1970s in response to oil crisis Texas at forefront of technology & leads the way today Permian Basin in NW Texas is the primary injection area 1000s km 32” pipeline & associated infrastructure developed Natural & anthropogenic CO2 sources used

  4. CO2-EOR – Technology Water Alternating Gas (WAG) CO2 injected to swell oil and increase fluidity H2O injection to displace oil to production wells Gravity Stable Gas Injection (GSGI) CO2 injected at field crest Stabilising pressure and promoting gravity drainage Miscible flood – critical CO2 dissolved in oil swelling oil, viscosity reduced surface tension reduced Immiscible CO2 displacement Partial dissolution in oil may reduce viscosity substantially

  5. Schematic WAG http://www.netl.doe.gov/scngo/Petroleum/publications/eordrawings/eordraw.html

  6. How much additional recovery? West Texas 4-12% of STOIIP (observed) 60+ projects (~100 world wide) US DOE 7-14% of STOIIP (calculated) Institute for Energy (Netherlands) 9-18% STOIIP of UK, Norwegian & Danish fields (calculated)

  7. How much CO2 is used? • 0.1 to 0.45 pore volumes injected • Typically 1 (net*) tonne of CO2 injected delivers 2.5 to 5 bbl oil (average 3 bbl) • Tapered WAG (decreasing CO2 volumes) most effective *Net = total injected - recycled

  8. UK Oil Fields From Gluyas & Hichens, 2003 Viking Graben Moray Firth & Central N Sea

  9. UK Offshore Oil Reserve https://www.og.decc.gov.uk/information/bb_updates/chapters/Table4_3.htm

  10. UKCS Recovery Factors ~45% High End - Piper – recovery factor >70% Low End - Lyell – recovery factor ~5% Jayasekera & Goodyear SPE 75171

  11. UKCS & West Texas Oil Fields UKCS West Texas Sandstones & dolomites 1.2 to 1.8 km deep 15-60ºC Light oil 30-42API Typically low quality (permeability 4-16 mD) Pattern floods l High well density • Sandstones • Most > 2.7 km deep • Most > 90ºC • Light oil ~35-40API • Typically high quality (permeability – 100s mD) • Line drive water floods for secondary recovery • Low well density

  12. UKCS vs West Texas West Texas – incremental oil recovery 4-12% of STOIIP CO2 is expected to be miscible (or nearly so) with current conditions in the UKCS oil reservoirs UKCS fields more permeable and at higher temperature than those in West Texas – both factors may favour the North Sea From Goodyear et al, IEA EOR Caracas 2002

  13. UKCS – The Prize Assuming UKCS: Reserve of 30,000mmbbl STOIIP 30,000/0.45 = 67,000mmbbl From West Texas 4-12% additional recovery of STOIIP Yields 2,700 – 8,000 mmbbl technical reserves Requiring ~1 t CO2 per 3bbl* For ~3,000 mmbbl, ~1,000 Mt CO2 required *range 2.5 to 5 bbl/tonne

  14. Scotland 19mm tonnes North East 21mm tonnes Yorkshire 27mm tonnes & Humberside UK Industrial CO2 production 2007 100km UK oil province http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/climate_change/climate_change.aspx

  15. Supply & Demand Assuming all industrial CO2 from the eastern UK could be available for CO2-EOR yields 60-70mm tonnes per annum Over a 15-25 year period (ie typical CO2-EOR project length) this would use 1 billion tonnes CO2 …. the quantity required to optimise CO2-EOR in the North Sea

  16. Are UK Oil Fields Ready For CO2-EOR? Claymore Arbroath Maureen Ninian

  17. The Time is Right (but don’t wait) UKCS Shrinking Infrastructure Jayasekera & Goodyear SPE 75171

  18. UK Security of Supply Shortfall in 2010 ~15 mm tonnes Equivalent to ~300,000 bopd Equivalent to Initiating ~1/3 potential CO2-EOR projects DECC publication 2008

  19. Costing the Earth? • For the North Sea • There is no CO2 infrastructure • There is no ‘ready’ source of CO2 • The first project will be an enormous commitment • But in 2003 • WoS to Magnus pipeline laid • ~200 miles long • CH4 for WAG • 50mmbbl additional reserves • 3+ years extra field life

  20. Saving the Planet • 1bbl of oil contains ≡ 0.42 t CO2 after combustion • 1bbl produced by CO2-EOR requires between 0.4 and 0.2 t CO2 • At best – the process is carbon neutral • At worst – the process is halving emissions

  21. CO2-EOR Heritage The CO2 production from eastern UK could ‘power’ CO2-EOR in the North Sea for 10-15 years per project, over ~30 year period It could deliver: Improved security of oil supply Infrastructure usable for carbon capture Increased tax revenues over current projections Deep aquifer storage area