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C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP Cellular RespirationHarvesting Chemical Energy Glucose + Oxygen > Water + Carbon Dioxide +ATP
Glucose • Glucose is the fuel most commonly used by the cell • The breakdown of glucose is AEROBIC Respiration with oxygen.
Cellular Respiration A process in which glucose molecule is broken down and ATP is released.
Energy IN A Cell • The energy source we need is ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). • ATP consist of: an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar, an 3 phosphate groups. • Cells need a constant supply of ATP. • Having ATP is like having your battery charged.
Aerobic Respiration • Requires oxygen • Aerobic respiration-process in which ATP is made using oxygen. • Occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. • Aerobic respiration happens in ALL aerobic organisms (plants/animals)
Three Stages of Cellular Respiration • Glycolysis • Citric Acid Cycle or Kreb Cycle • Electron Transport
1st STEP • Glycolysis—aerobic or anerobic (no oxygen) • Takes place in cytoplasm. • Glucose main food source. • Makes only 2 ATP’s.
2nd Step • Citric Acid Cycle or Kreb Cycle • Occurs in the mitochondria. • Oxygen must be present. • Carbon Dioxide is given off. • ENERGY is held in bonds of hydrogen. • Makes 2 ATPs.
3rd Step Electron Transport Chain • Bonds are broken. • Energy is released. • Hydrogen and Oxygen bond (Water is given off). • 34 ATP’s are made.
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION • Does not require oxygen. • Anaerobic respiration-process of making ATP without oxygen. • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Two types of anaerobic respiration • Lactic acid fermentation • Alcoholic fermentation
Cellular Respiration Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen • 2 Types • each identified by its waste products • (1) Alcoholic Fermentation • (2) Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation • Occurs in bacteria and yeast cell. • Produces alcohol and carbon dioxide. • Micro-organisms that make yeast, bread and wine.
Lactic Acid Fermentation • Occurs in animal cells when oxygen is not present. • SORE MUSCLES will occur.
Alcoholic Fermentation Some organisms carry out alcoholic fermentation. This was discovered by Louis Pasteur in his study of the chemistry of wines. Yeasts break down the sugars in the juice to pyruvate by glycolysis, then the pyruvate is dismantled to yield CO2 and ETHANOL. If the fermentation continues until all the sugar is used, a dry wine is produced. If fermentation is stopped before all the sugar is used, then a sweet wine is produced.
One Glucose Molecule Produce 38 ATP 2 +2 + 34 Total 38
Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H20 C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Photosynthesis • Process by which plants and other autotrophs store the energy of sunlight into sugars. • Requires sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. 6 CO2 + 6 H20 C6H12O6 + 6 O2 • Occurs in the leaves of plants in organelles called chloroplasts.
FACTS TO KNOW • Site for Photosynthesis: chloroplast • Chlorophyll- Green plant pigment found in the chloroplast • Organ of Photosynthesis: Leaf
Photosynthesis: The Chemical Process • Occurs in two main phases. • Light reactions • Dark reactions (aka – the Calvin Cycle) • Light reactions are the “photo” part of photosynthesis. Light is absorbed by pigments. • Dark reactions are the “synthesis” part of photosynthesis. Trapped energy from the sun is converted to the chemical energy of sugars.
LIGHT REACTION(LIGHT – DEPENDENT) 1.DEPENDS UPON LIGHT 2. LIGHT IS ABSORBED 3. WATER IS SPLIT
DARK REACTION(LIGHT-INDEPENDENT) • LIGHT IS NOT NECESSARY. 2. THIS REACTION FOLLOWS THE LIGHT REACTION. 3. SUGAR (GLUCOSE) IS MADE. 4. CARBON DIOXIDE IS GIVEN OFF.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS This reaction is one of the most important chemical reactions that takes place on earth. ALL FOOD COMES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM PLANTS