Types of Comprehension • Reading Comprehension and Listening Comprehension • We study Reading Comprehension
This Skill is important because there is a great demand for this skill in practical life.– One needs to read and understand and write reports etc. • Answer questions about what you have read. Give information to others) • Every exam is a comprehension test.
Comprehension skills involve 3 things: (test 3 skills) • Speedy reading • Quick Understanding • Precise Reproduction
Reading comprehension requires the following: • an ability to understand the meaning of what is put forth • as well as to express it clearly and accurately.
Comprehension is dependant not merely on the sum-total of the meaning of individual words that are written in the text but also on the context in which it is written. • the intention of the writer and
the sequence in which ideas are presented i.e. linking between individual words, one sentence and another, between sentences and paragraphs and also between paragraphs and paragraphs. • This skill like every other skill can be acquired through practice.
Process of Comprehension • Reading for a comprehension is done in two stages: • Skimming and • Scanning.
Skimming – Reading quickly to get the general idea of the passage is called skimming. When skimming one’s eyes should be focused on the ‘content’ or the important words and the structure or joining words may be glossed over. • E.g. Today’syoung students are very intelligent and can understand things faster. • The threats to fisherman during the monsoon are many
Scanning-looking for specific information in a text is called scanning. While scanning one is asking the questions: who, what, where, how, etc. During the process of scanning one can also find other qualities of the text like disagreement, approval, etc. Scanning can also be done after reading the questions.
The kinds of questions asked in a comprehension deal with: 1 Identification of information 2 Collection or reordering of relevant information. 3 Separation of fact from opinion. 4 Aspects of Language.
Identification of information - Pinpointing the message/argument of the passage and the various points of the message In purely descriptive/narrative passages. This is difficult but in informative and reflective passages one can pick out the important ideas
Collection or reordering of relevant information- Important points may be spread out in different places in the passage. One should be able to collect it and re-order it in a logical sequence.
Separating Fact from opinion/Fiction – Quite often facts and opinions are mixed in a passage. Separating the two often requires skill and sharp mind. E.g. Many tourist visit Mahabaleshwar because there is a big shopping mall in this hill station. First part of the statement is fact but the latter part may be true for some only. It is the opinion of the writer.
4 Aspects of Language include: • Vocabulary and Grammar • Synonyms and antonyms • One word substitutions • Word formation • Textual organization
Vocabulary – the meanings of the words in the given context. E.g. This is a baffling problem. I cannot find a solution to it. • Specialized words/difficult words. E.g. Rank, Barrage, Guerilla Warfare etc. – Used by the armed forces.
Synonyms Contradict – deny, dispute Question – query, inquiry, interrogative statement • Antonyms Talkative – quiet Villain – hero
One-word substitution: Eats only grass – herbivorous – An elephant Eats only meat – carnivorous – A lion Eat both meat and grass – omnivorous – A dog Fairly good-looking and well dressed – presentable
Textual Organization – Linking of words within the sentences and linking of sentences with each other. E.g. The children of poor parents have to work for their living. This prevents them from going to school
Practical Hints • Read the passage quickly once to get the general meaning. • Go through the passage once more to isolate the important points. • Then read the question and look for the specific information asked in the question.
If there are words, whose meaning you don’t know, try to make a guess from the context of the word. • Be precise in your answers. Don’t give more information than asked for. • As far as possible write in complete sentences except when one word or phrase is asked for.
As far as possible, your answers should be in your own words and unless otherwise stated in complete sentences. • Check carefully the grammar, punctuation and spelling of everything you write. Bad grammar and spelling create a bad impression.
Thank-You and Good-Luck