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Carbohydrates. CH 2 OH. O. H. H. H. OH. H. OH. HO. H. OH. Carbohydrates. energy molecules. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH 2 O (CH 2 O) x C 6 H 12 O 6

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slide2

CH2OH

O

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

HO

H

OH

Carbohydrates

energymolecules

carbohydrates1

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O

carbo - hydr - ate

CH2O

(CH2O)x C6H12O6

  • Function:
    • energy uenergy storage
    • raw materialsustructural materials
  • Monomer: sugars
  • ex: sugars, starches, cellulose

(CH2O)x

C6H12O6

sugars

H

O

C

CH2OH

CH2OH

C

OH

O

H

H

O

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

H

C

H

HO

OH

HO

HO

H

H

H

OH

OH

H

Glyceraldehyde

Glucose

Ribose

Sugars
  • Most names for sugars end in -ose
  • Classified by number of carbons
    • 6C = hexose (glucose)
    • 5C = pentose (ribose)
    • 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde)

6

5

3

slide5

Functional groups determine function

carbonyl

aldehyde

carbonyl

ketone

sugar structure
Sugar structure

5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution

Where do you find solutionsin biology?

In cells!

Carbons are numbered

numbered carbons
Numbered carbons

C

6'

C

O

5'

C

C

4'

1'

energy stored in C-C bonds

C

C

3'

2'

simple complex sugars

CH2OH

O

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

HO

H

OH

Glucose

Simple & complex sugars
  • Monosaccharides
    • simple 1 monomer sugars
    • glucose
  • Disaccharides
    • 2 monomers
    • sucrose
  • Polysaccharides
    • large polymers
    • starch
building sugars

H2O

Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

glucose

|

maltose

glycosidic linkage

building sugars1

H2O

Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

fructose

|

sucrose

(table sugar)

Let’s go to the videotape!

polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Polymers of sugars
    • costs little energy to build
    • easily reversible = release energy
  • Function:
    • energy storage
      • starch (plants)
      • glycogen (animals)
        • in liver & muscles
    • structure
      • cellulose (plants)
      • chitin (arthropods & fungi)
linear vs branched polysaccharides
Linear vs. branched polysaccharides

slow release

starch

(plant)

What doesbranching do?

energystorage

glycogen

(animal)

Let’s go to the videotape!

fast release

polysaccharide diversity
Polysaccharide diversity
  • Molecular structure determines function

in starch

in cellulose

  • isomers of glucose
  • structure determines function…
digesting starch vs cellulose

enzyme

enzyme

Digesting starch vs. cellulose

starcheasy todigest

cellulosehard todigest

cellulose
Cellulose
  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth
    • herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose
    • most carnivores have not
      • that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients
      • cellulose = undigestible roughage

But it tasteslike hay!Who can liveon this stuff?!

slide16
Cow

can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars

Gorilla

can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

helpful bacteria
Helpful bacteria
  • How can herbivores digest cellulose so well?
    • BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals

Caprophage

Tell me aboutthe rabbits,again, George!

I eatWHAT!

Ruminants

let s build some carbohydrates

EAT

X

Let’s build some

Carbohydrates!