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Review. 1789-1900. Federalist Era. President : George Washington, no party, 1789-1797 Washington opposed parties - divisive Alexander Hamilton – supported local industry through subsidies & tax support Excise tax, on distillers, & tariffs, to finance industry

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federalist era
Federalist Era
  • President : George Washington, no party, 1789-1797
  • Washington opposed parties - divisive
  • Alexander Hamilton – supported local industry through subsidies & tax support
  • Excise tax, on distillers, & tariffs, to finance industry
  • Jefferson et al opposed Hamilton – benefit a few at expense of many (farmers)
  • Beginning of struggle between “big govt” .v. “small govt”
  • Strict interpretation .v. loose interpretation
  • Judiciary Act, 1789, created Supreme Court
  • Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
  • French Revolution
john adams federalist 1797 1801
John Adams, Federalist, 1797-1801
  • Jefferson, V-P
  • XYZ Affair, 1798
  • Alien & Sedition Acts
  • Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
  • Packing the Judiciary – Midnight Judges
thomas jefferson republican 1802 1809
Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 1802-1809
  • Dream of a nation of yeoman farmers
  • Minimum role for federal governmentt
  • Marbury .v. Madison – Supreme Court has judicial review over federal legislation
  • “Marshall Court” will be influential for decades to come
  • Louisiana Purchase, 1803
  • Lewis & Clark expedition, 1804-05
  • Aaron Burr – secession ? take Mexico, estab new nation - treason ?
  • Barbary War – pirates in Mediterranean
  • Conflict between France & Britain ~ tension w/ US (impressments, interference w/ freedom of the seas, i.e. trade)
  • Embargo, 1807
james madison republican 1809 1817
James Madison, Republican, 1809-1817
  • War of 1812
  • failed attack on Canada
  • Andrew Jackson (Indians & New Orleans)
  • British burn White House
  • Hartford Convention
  • Era of Good Feelings (1812-1819) – unity, prosperity – short lived
  • Protective Tariff, 1816
james monroe republican 1817 1823
James Monroe, Republican, 1817-1823
  • High foreign demand for cotton, grain, tobacco
  • Recession of 1819 (worse in West)
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward, & McCullough v. MD (1819)
  • Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • Expansion of West
  • Transportation revolution (steamboat, canals, national highway)
  • Cotton Kingdom
  • Urbanization (Erie Canal ~ NYC)
  • Industrialization
  • Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  • Nationalism in “culture” – Noah Webster, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper
  • 2nd Great Awakening (begins 1801, Ky, continues into 1830s)
jacksonian democracy 1828 1836
Jacksonian Democracy (1828-1836)
  • 1824 – the “corrupt bargain” election (JQ Adams & Clay “rob” Jackson)
  • Jackson represents the “common man”.
  • Jackson expands suffrage, so the “common man” can vote = Jacksonian Democracy.
  • De Tocqueville, “Democracy in America”.
  • Jackson uses the veto and establishes Presidential authority over Congress.
  • Jackson defies the Supreme Court by Indian Removal Act, 1830 (Cherokees – Worcester .v. Georgia), Trail of Tears results.
  • Jackson fights a running battle with Henry Clay and his American System.
  • Whigs (Clay & Webster) v. Democrats (Jackson & Van Buren) – 2 party system becomes established.
jacksonian democracy 1828 18361
Jacksonian Democracy (1828-1836)
  • Jackson stands for small govt, but NOT for nullification (remember, Jackson is President and nullification or secession reduces the power of the feds.
  • John C. Calhoun is influential as South-North disputes blow up over slavery, tariffs, BUS, federally funded internal improvements.
  • Tariff of Abominations (1828 – is slavery the real issue?), SC nullifies the tariff, Jackson responds with the Force Bill (1833) and SC backs down. Civil War is averted for a few more years.
  • Webster – Hayne Debate, 1830 (Senate, Webster makes stirring speech about the union being “one and inseperable” – again, it’s the nullification / secession issue).
  • Jackson fights Nicholas Biddle to destroy the BUS.
  • Jackson declares the US “neutral”, but assists Texas break free from Mexico (1836)
slavery issue
Slavery Issue
  • Missouri Compromise (1820)
  • Abolitionists active (Wm Lloyd Garrison, 1831, The Liberator)
  • States’ rights = right to have slaves
  • Therefore the whole nullification / secession thing is really about slavery.
  • Manifest Destiny; Louisiana Purchase; Texas; Mexican Land – slavery is issue in each
  • Free Soil Party
  • Slave revolts (Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey)
  • Underground Railroad (Harriet Tubman)
  • Wilmot Proviso
social issues
Social Issues
  • Transcendentalists (Thoreau, Emerson)
  • Utopian movements everywhere, inspired by Romanticism
  • Beginning of Temperance Movement
  • Feminism movement – Seneca Falls, 1848
  • Prison reform
  • 2nd Great Awakening (began 1801, but took off in 1831)
  • Population moving west rapidly
  • East becoming less significant
  • Canals & railroads & national roads assist westward movement
  • Immigration from Britain, Germany, Ireland
  • Cities growing, as are health issues in cities
  • Mormon migration westward (1846, Great Salt Lake)
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • Mainly having to do with contiguous territory
  • Obviously foreign policy is driven by “Manifest Destiny” idea (term coined in 1844)
  • Texan independence (1836), Canada (Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842), Oregon Treaty (1846), Mexican War (1846)
  • Growth of cities as a result
  • Lowell System of employment in NE
  • Tariffs to protect American industry (Clay’s Am. System)
economic issues
Economic Issues
  • Panic of 1837
sectional conflict causes of civil war 1850 60 politics
Sectional Conflict & Causes of Civil War, 1850-60 Politics
  • Growing concerns and disputes regarding slavery
  • Wilmot Proviso, 1846 (re. Mexican Cession land).
  • Free Soil Party, 1848 & 1852
  • Abolitionists, Underground Railroad
  • 1850 Compromise (Clay, Calhoun, Webster, Douglas)
    • N. got California ; slave trade abolished in DC
    • Popular Sovereignty in rest of Mexican Cession land
    • S. got tougher Fugitive Slave Law ; Texas’ debt paid by feds
  • Wm Seward : “a higher law” than the Constitution
  • National joy that a Compromise had been reached
  • Joy was short-lived
sectional conflict causes of civil war 1850 60 politics1
Sectional Conflict & Causes of Civil War, 1850-60 Politics
  • “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” whipped up the slavery issue – H.B. Stowe’s response to Fug Slave Law
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 (Douglas)
  • popular sovereignty
  • trans-continental railroad
  • repealed Missouri Compromise
  • Bleeding Kansas (Free Soilers, John Brown), 1856
  • Preston Brooks “canes” Charles Sumner, 1856
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
  • Chief Justice, Roger B. Taney, Md.
  • Delivered extreme Southern position on slavery issue
  • North outraged (refused to accept decision)
  • Lincoln - Douglas Debates, 1858
  • Lincoln = slavery should be extended
  • Douglas = popular sovereignty
  • Freeport Doctrine – Douglas defied Dred Scott ruling
sectional conflict causes of civil war 1850 60 politics2
Sectional Conflict & Causes of Civil War, 1850-60 Politics
  • Decline of the 2 party system (split by slavery issue ; also by “nativism” – Know Nothing Party took votes from Whigs) – tougher to deal with slavery when there is no opposition party to support
  • Growth of Republican Party (Lincoln) to replace Whigs – result of opposition to Kansas-Nebraska Act. Ran Millard Fillmore in 1856 (lost)
  • Democrats split into North & South.
  • John Brown’s Raid, Harper’s Ferry, 1859
  • South convinced that all North was fanatically anti-slavery
  • Hinton Rowan Helper’s book “The Impending Crisis in the South”
    • argued that slavery was economically harmful to South
    • South outraged
  • Fear that poor whites in South would turn against slavery
  • Election of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
  • Crittenden Compromise, 1860 - failed
  • General Zachary Taylor, Whig, 1848-50 (died) ; Millard Fillmore, 1850-52
  • Franklin Pierce, Democrat, 1852-56
  • James Buchanan, Democrat, 1856-60
  • Abraham Lincoln, Republican, 1860 ~
  • Growth and prosperity
  • Tremendous growth of railroads ~ national market ~ big business
  • Steamboat trade inland, clipper ships at sea ~ tremendous trade
  • Textile industries booming in NE (inventions)
  • South profiting due to cotton sales – King Cotton – slave labor the key
  • Free labor in North = expensive ~ incentive to use machines
  • Agriculture shifting to Midwest (grain, livestock) ~ railroads help
  • Cyrus McCormick, mechanical reaper & thresher
  • Panic of 1857 (over-speculation, bad banking practices, Crimean War cut European investments to US)
foreign policy1
Foreign Policy
  • Commodore Perry pressures Japan to trade, 1853
  • Westward expansion – tried to annex Hawaii ; Gadsden Purchase 1853 (for transcontinental railroad); tried to buy Cuba
civil war 1861 65
Civil War, 1861-65
  • Numerous causes, but SLAVERY the most obvious.
  • Desire of South to secede is the catalyst. North says secession is unconstitutional.
  • North claims it is fighting to preserve the Union. Emancipating slaves won’t become a war goal until 1863.
  • South opens fire on N. troops at Fort Sumter, Charleston harbor, SC, April 12, 1861.
  • North has numerous advantages – greater wealth to finance war, 3-to-1 population advantage (plus new immigrants during war), industrial might, superior transportation /railway network, superior navy which can partially blockade South, and astute President in Lincoln.
  • South has advantage of superior military leaders (Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Johnston). North is hampered for first couple of years by timid or aged generals (McDowell, McClellan, Winfield Scott). Later promote younger more determined generals such as U.S. Grant, Sherman, Sheridan.
  • South is physically large, thus difficult for North to conquer.
  • South’s President, Jefferson Davis, proved indecisive.
  • Much of fighting conducted in South, giving advantage to South of knowing the terrain, and having friendly civilians.
  • South’s population is one-third slave (can’t use in army, can’t trust not to rebel).
  • North wants to capture South’s capital, Richmond, Va., Southern capital.
  • 2 Battles of Bull Run. South successful, but both armies raw & poorly trained.
  • Peninsula Campaign to capture Richmond. (Spring, 1862, McClellan loses his nerve, and retreats).
  • North wants to starve the South – hence naval blockade (Anaconda Plan). But coastline too long to adequately blockade.
  • North wants to split South in 2, along the Mississippi R., thus dividing and conquering. Need to capture New Orleans (April 1862).
  • Meanwhile, Western campaign, Tennessee. Battle of Shiloh. US Grant first noticed here.
  • Northern diplomacy. Stop South being recognized by Britain or France. South hoped that cotton would lure allies. It didn’t. Slavery was a stronger issue, and neither Br nor France would support the institution of slavery.
  • Naval battles ? Ironclads. “Virginia” (South) fights “Monitor” (North), May 1862. Stalemate. Finish.
  • Lee invades the Pennsylvania, to relieve pressure on Richmond. Lee’s army meets Meade’s Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg, July 1863. Decisive battle, bloodiest of the entire war. Lee is defeated, but Meade allows Lee to escape back to Virginia.
  • Grant captures Vicksburg, Mississippi, July, 1863, thus giving North control of entire Miss. R. South cut in two.
  • 1864, Grant sends Sherman to capture Atlanta, Ga., while Grant himself leads Army of Potomac on another assault on Richmond.
  • Sherman takes Atlanta, then marches to the sea at Savannah, cutting a swath of destruction (Dec. 1864).
  • Lee forced to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9, 1865.
  • Lincoln assassinated, April 14, 1865, in Washington D.C.
  • Public morale hard to maintain in North.
  • Copperheads were Southern supporters in North.
  • Conscription in North, 1863, caused discontent.
  • Draft-dodging and desertion problems in N. and S.
  • High tariffs & income tax (constitutional) in North to pay for war.
  • “Greenbacks” issued by feds. South issued their own paper money. Inflation.
  • Scarcity of food, and men, in South.
  • Lincoln suspended “habeas corpus”. Stretched his Constitutional powers to the limit, and beyond.
  • Davis (in South) met opposition from state governors who wanted to keep “states rights”, and who saw Richmond as a threat to their liberty.
  • Emancipation Proclamation from Lincoln, 1 January, 1863. Gave North the moral high ground. Desperation from Lincoln ? Waited until after “victory” at Battle of Antietam. No Proclamation earlier in war for fear of upsetting Border states, who could have swung their allegiance to South.
  • Northern public tired of war and continuing casualties. Low morale.
  • 1864 Election in North. Lincoln re-elected with V-P Andrew Johnson (Tennessee). Sherman captures Atlanta, lifts Northern spirits, gives big boost to Lincoln. McClellan runs for Democrats, calling for a negotiated peace with South.
the gilded age politics
The Gilded Age: Politics
  • Period of Republican Party supremacy
  • President 1868-1876, Ulysses S Grant- good soldier, not a great president.
  • Waving the bloody shirt = reviving glorified memories from war, and reminding the electorate as to who was “the enemy.”
  • Corruption – an embarrassingly large number of Grant’s cabinet members were guilty of corruption. Did Grant know, or was he out of touch with reality ?
  • Horace Greeley (influential NY editor) first Republican, then switched to Democrats. Republicans re-nominated Grant.
  • Election of 1876
    • R = Hayes, D = Tilden, 19 contested states, FL, LA and SC all sent in 2 sets of ballots, one Republican and one Democrat. Constitutional crises, who counts the ballots, House under D control Senate under R control , which ever one counted would favor in the interests of their party.
    • Compromise of 1877 set up an electoral count act and an electoral commission to count the votes. D accepted Republican returns and in return Federal troops removed from SC & LA.
the gilded age social issues
The Gilded Age: Social Issues
  • U.S moral stature was in question, bred waste, extravagance, speculation & graft.
  • Because of compromise of 1877 black rights suffered, federal troops were gone, southern states added literacy requirements, voter registration laws and poll taxes, blacks can no longer vote.
  • 1880 California has 75,000 Asian newcomers, 9% of pop, racism against Chinese. Irish especially racist, lead by Denis Kearney resented competition of cheap labor. 1879, Congress said no more Chinese laborers in the country.
the gilded age economic issues
The Gilded Age: Economic Issues
  • Paralyzing economic depression, 1873, based on over-speculation, huge inflation, problems with silver, no more silver being sold to treasury to mint, then silver production goes up, people now want silver dollars
  • Bland-Allison Act, states the treasury will buy $2 –4 million worth of silver a month.
  • Basic economic agreement between Democrats and Republicans.
  • Jay Gould & Jim Fisk = two millionaires tried to corner gold market, 1869, day named black Friday tried dive the gold price up the wall, treasury compelled to release gold, this was unexpected to the con artists.
  • Tweed ring NYC mayor Boss Tweed, cheated the books pocketed much of the cities money. Thomas Nast NYT cartoonist exposed Tweed. Samuel L Tilden, was prosecutor for case.
  • Credit Mobilier scandal, hired to build, union pacific railway, hired themselves to do the job made extra $20,000per mile of track laid.