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Intro and Science 1 Mohr Science 2 and Context Frieman Survey Design Annis Instrument Flaugher Optical Design Kent Data Management Plante Project Management Peoples. Presentations to Blanco Instrument Review Panel. Spergel et al. 2003.

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Presentations to Blanco Instrument Review Panel


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    1. Intro and Science 1 Mohr Science 2 and Context Frieman Survey Design Annis Instrument Flaugher Optical Design Kent Data Management Plante Project Management Peoples Presentations to Blanco Instrument Review Panel Blanco Instrument Review

    2. Spergel et al. 2003 Cosmic acceleration is here to stay! Toward an Understanding of the Dark Energy/ Cosmic Acceleration • Measuring (relative) distances or volumes out to z~2 • Measuring the growth rate of cosmic structures • Detecting dark energy clustering in the power spectrum of density fluctuations • Measure evolution of gravitational potential wells using the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect • Laboratory experiments and theoretical progress Blanco Instrument Review

    3. Tegmark et al 2004 Key Techniques for Measuring the Dark Energy Equation of State Parameter • Type Ia Supernovae as standard candles • Power spectrum measurements using galaxies or clusters • Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy • Weak lensing measurements • Galaxy cluster surveys Blanco Instrument Review

    4. A study of the dark energy using four independent and complementary techniques Galaxy cluster surveys Galaxy angular power spectrum Weak lensing SN Ia distances Two linked, multiband optical surveys 5000 deg2 g, r, i and z Repeated observations of 40 deg2 Instrument and schedule New 3 deg2 camera on the Blanco 4m on Cerro Tololo Construction: 2004-2009 Survey Operations: 30% of telescope time over 5 years Blanco 4m on Cerro Tololo Image credit: Roger Smith/NOAO/AURA/NSF The Dark Energy Survey Blanco Instrument Review

    5. Fermilab- Camera building, Survey Planning and Simulations Annis, Dodelson, Flaugher, Frieman, Gladders*, Hui, Kent, Lin, Limon, Peoples, Scarpine, Stebbins, Stoughton, Tucker and Wester *Carnegie Fellow, Carnegie Observatories U Illinois- Data Management, Data Acquisition, SPT Brunner, Karliner, Mohr, Plante, Selen and Thaler U Chicago- SPT, Simulations, Corrector Carlstrom, Dodelson, Frieman, Hu, Kent, Sheldon and Wechsler LBNL- Red Sensitive CCD Detectors Aldering, Bebek, Levi, Perlmutter and Roe CTIO- Telescope & Camera Operations Abbott, Smith, Suntzeff and Walker The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration Blanco Instrument Review

    6. Cluster constraints on dark energy: The cluster redshift distribution, the cluster power spectrum and 30% accurate mass measurements for 100 clusters between z of 0.3-1.2 Fiducial cosmology (WMAP: s8=0.84, Wm=0.27); 29000 clusters in the 4000 deg2 SPT survey. The joint constraints on w and Wm: Curvature free to vary (dashed); fixed (solid) Marginalized constant w 68% uncertainty is 0.046 (flat) or 0.071 (curvature varying) Parameter degeneracies complementary Cluster Survey Studies of the Dark Energy are Complementary and Competitive SPT: Majumdar & Mohr 2003 SNAP: Perlmutter & Schmidt 2003 WMAP: Spergel et al 2003 Blanco Instrument Review

    7. Raising w at fixed WE: decreases volume surveyed Volume effect Growth effect Cluster Redshift Distribution is Sensitive to the Dark Energy Equation of State Parameter w constraints: • decreases growth rate of density perturbations Blanco Instrument Review

    8. Requirements Quantitative understanding of the formation of dark matter halos in an expanding universe Clean way of selecting a large number (~104) of massive dark matter halos (galaxy clusters) over a range of redshifts Crude redshift estimates for each cluster Observables that can be used as mass estimates at all redshifts Technique called self-calibration provides a framework for determining cosmology and mass-observable relation simultaneously Sensitivity to Mass Precision Cosmology with Clusters Blanco Instrument Review

    9. Low noise, precision telescope • 20 um rms surface • 1 arc second pointing • 1.0 arcminute at 2 mm • ‘chop’ entire telescope • 3 levels of shielding • ~1 m radius on primary • inner moving shields • outer fixed shields SZE and CMB Anisotropy - 4000 sq deg SZE survey - deep CMB anisotropy fields - deep CMB Polarization fields 10m South Pole Telescope(SPT)and 1000 Element Bolometer Array People Carlstrom (UC) Holzapfel (UCB) Lee (UCB,LBNL) Leitch (UC) Meyer (UC) Mohr (U Illinois)Padin (UC) Pryke (UC) Ruhl (CWRU) Spieler (LBNL) Stark (CfA) 1000 Element Bolometer Array - 3 to 4 interchangeable bands (90) 150, 250 & 270 GHz - APEX-SZ style horn fed spider web absorbers NSF-OPP funded & scheduled for Nov 2006 deployment DoE (LBNL) funding of readout development Blanco Instrument Review

    10. Occultation limit: 28 144’ across 47’ high Will survey extragalactic sky south of -300 dec To DSL SPT Structure and Shielding Blanco Instrument Review

    11. SPT will survey all the extragalactic sky south of declination d=-300 This corresponds to approximately 4000 deg2 of reasonably clean sky north of d=-750 20hr < a < 7hr This region is easily observable with the Blanco 4m on Cerro Tololo SPT Survey Region Blanco Instrument Review

    12. DES Cluster Photo-z’s • DES data will enable cluster photometric redshifts with dz~0.02 for all SPT clusters out to z~1.3 • Uses Monte-carlo estimates of galaxy photo-z uncertainties, which include appropriate photometric noise [Huan Lin] • Uses halo occupation number N(M) measured in ~100 local groups and clusters [Y-T Lin, Mohr & Stanford 2004] • Adopts redshift evolution of N(M)~(1+z) and passive evolution of galactic stars Figure from Huan Lin Blanco Instrument Review

    13. Lin, Mohr & Stanford 2004 Kochanek et al. 2003 89 clusters 28% scatter 84 clusters 81% scatter Why a Large SZE Cluster Survey? • Improved halo mass estimates- the mass-observable relations in the optical are not as clean • ~100% rms in optical- see below- versus 10%-25% in SZE • Improved cluster selection- projection and environment issues are not as severe (optical data complementary) • What about X-ray surveys (serendipitous and with DUO)? Blanco Instrument Review

    14. DES main survey will yield photo-z’s on approximately 300 million galaxies extending beyond a redshift z~1 Photo-z uncertainties are too large to allow a full study of the 3D galaxy clustering, but we can study the angular clustering within redshift shells to z~1 Features in the angular power spectrum reflect “standard rods” that follow from simple physical arguments and can be calibrated using CMB anisotropy data. Apparent sizes of features provide angular diameter distances to each redshift shell (i.e. Cooray et al 2001). The clustering amplitude is unimportant, and so the unknown galaxy bias is no problem. SPT Cluster Angular Power Spectrum Figure from Cooray et al ApJ 2001 DES Galaxy Angular Power Spectrum Blanco Instrument Review

    15. We use the galaxy angular power spectrum within redshift shells, concentrating only on the portion with 50 < ell < 300 We marginalize over 5 halo model parameters in each redshift bin Angular Power Spectrum for 0.90 < z < 1 Galaxy Angular Power Spectrum Cosmology Figures from Wayne Hu • With Planck priors, constraints on a constant equation of state parameter w are better than dw~0.1 Blanco Instrument Review

    16. Intro and Science 1 Mohr Science 2 and Context Frieman Survey Design Annis Instrument Flaugher Optical Design Kent Data Management Plante Project Management Peoples Presentations to Blanco Instrument Review Panel Blanco Instrument Review