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Bonding. Writing Formula and Naming Compounds. STEPS. 1. Decide if compound is Ionic or Covalent: All Ionic Compounds must have a Cation (Positive Ion) and an Anion (Negative Ion) Covalent Compounds contain either Nonmetals or Metalloids. Steps For Ionic Compounds.

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bonding

Bonding

Writing Formula and Naming Compounds

steps
STEPS
  • 1. Decide if compound is Ionic or Covalent:
      • All Ionic Compounds must have a Cation (Positive Ion) and an Anion (Negative Ion)
      • Covalent Compounds contain either Nonmetals or Metalloids
steps for ionic compounds
Steps For Ionic Compounds
  • 1. Write down the symbols of the ions in the compound
  • 2. Determine the charge on each ion and write the charges as superscripts
  • 3. Criss-cross the quantity of the charges (only the number not the sign)
  • 4. Write the quantity as subscripts
  • 5. Reduce (if necessary) subscripts to get lowest ratio
example 1 calcium chloride
Example 1: Calcium Chloride
  • Calcium
  • Ca
  • Ca+2
  • Chloride
  • Cl
  • Cl-1

CaCl2

example 2 iron ii phosphate
Example 2: Iron (II) Phosphate
  • Iron (II)
  • Fe
  • Fe +2
  • Phosphate
  • PO4
  • PO4-3

Fe3(PO4)2

Note: Because ‘2’ phosphates are needed to equal the charge of 3 Fe +2, phosphate was placed inside ( ).

covalent compounds
Covalent Compounds

The following prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms present in the compound for each element. Note: atoms do notget reduced as in Ionic Compounds.

  • Mono = 1
  • Di = 2
  • Tri = 3
  • Tetra = 4
  • Penta = 5
  • Hexa = 6
  • Septa = 7
  • Octa = 8
  • Nona = 9
  • Dec = 10
example 3 carbon tetrachloride covalent since no metal is present
Example 3: Carbon Tetrachloride(covalent since no metal is present)
  • Carbon
  • C
  • Chloride
  • Cl

Since ‘tetra’ means 4, there are 4 atoms of Chlorine in the compound and the formula is:

CCl4

example 4 dinitrogen trioxide
Example 4: Dinitrogen Trioxide
  • Nitrogen
  • N
  • Oxygen
  • O

Since “di’ means 2 and “tri’ means 3, the formula is:

N2O3

naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Since ionic formulas are written by criss-crossing the charges, to name them just “uncriss-cross” the formula.
  • Remember, ionic formulas are the simplest ratio of the atoms present for each element. So you have to keep in mind if any quantities got reduced.
example 5 fe 2 so 4 3
Example 5: Fe2(SO4)3
  • Uncriss-crossing shows that the 3 came from the Fe (iron) and the 2 from the SO4 (sulfate)
  • Name of the compound is Iron (III) Sulfate
example 6 cuo
Example 6: CuO
  • Quickly looking at this formula, you may think there’s 1 atom of each element. BUT, remember, Oxygen gains 2 electrons and forms the O -2 anion.
  • This means that the charge from the Copper ion must balance the charge of the Oxygen ion.
  • So, the correct name of this compound is:
              • Copper (II) Oxide
naming covalent compounds
Naming Covalent Compounds
  • Look at the number of atoms of each element present and use the prefixes to name the compound
  • If the first element has only 1 atom, do not use ‘mono’
  • If using the prefix as is makes the name sound ‘weird’, just drop the vowel: CO = Carbon Monoxide and not Carbon Monooxide
example 7 p 4 s 5
Example 7: P4S5
  • P = Phosphorus
  • S = Sulfur
  • Tetra = 4
  • Penta = 5
  • TetraphosphorusPentasulfide