Culinary Arts I Food Safety and Sanitation
Food Safety • Reducing the risk of making yourself and others sick through food production • 76 million food borne illnesses are reported each year. • 300,000 people are hospitalized each year • 5,000 people die each year
FOOD SAFETY & SANITATION • This is what happens when a fly lands on your food. Flies can not eat solid food, so to soften it up they vomit on it. Then they stamp the vomit until it’s a liquid. When its good and runny, they suck it all back again, probably dropping some excrement at the same time.
Cross-Contamination • Definition: The spread of harmful germs from one surface to another, or to food • Can be prevented by: • proper sanitary practices • Proper Hand washing • Using clean utensils • Sanitizing between tasks • Isolation of workstations is important when preparing potentially hazardous food
HAND WASHING • How often: Every time you change tasks, handle garbage, use the restroom, sneeze, cough, or handle $ • Using gloves is mandatory with any non-wrapped food item (chips vs. sandwich). • Gloves must be changed between all situations stated above.
Cleaning vs. Sanitizing Cleaning: • Free of visible soil, dirt, dust or food waste Sanitizing: Process of reducing the number of microorganisms, bacteria on a clean surface to safe levels Some type of cleaning solution
FoodHazards • Biological Hazards - Danger to food safety caused by disease-causing micro-organisms • Chemical Hazards – Danger to food safety caused by cleaners, pesticides and other chemicals • Physical Hazards – Danger to food safety caused by glass, metal & other physical particles
Bacteria • Can multiply rapidly to disease-causing levels at favorable temps. 70 to 125 • Can produce toxins in food that can poison humans when the food is eaten • Cause most food borne illnesses
Viruses: • Do not grow in food, but can be transported by food items. • Transported by many food items, including ice & water.
Parasites: • Live inside a host to survive • Can cause people to become infected if they eat raw or undercooked meat.
Fungi: • Molds: Cause illnesses, infections, and allergies • Yeast: spoils food
FAT-TOM(conditions that favor the growth of most food borne organisms) • FOOD • ACIDITY (ph scale) • TIME • TEMPERATURE (danger zone) • OXYGEN (vacuum packed) • MOISTURE
SANITIZING • Why is sanitization so important? • Kills germs Prevents Cross-Contamination Bleach Bath 1t. to 1 gallon water (warm) Procedure: wash dishes, rinse, bleach bath in separate container, air dry in drying rack
FOOD STORAGE • Properly Stored Food: • Top Rack: ready to heat & serve • Middle Rack: Veggies, other food to be cooked • Bottom Rack: Raw meats
Food Temps for maintaining safety • DANGER ZONE IS: 41- 140 Cold foods must be kept below 40 degrees OR hot foods above 140 degrees.
Cooling down food • 3 ways to cool/ thaw food • 1. In the refrigerator • 2. cook right away • 3. Microwave
TemperatureDangerZone • Thawing • Storing • Cooling • Reheating • Potentially Dangerous Foods • Hand washing
5 dirtiest foods: http://shine.yahoo.com/channel/health/the-5-dirtiest-foods-327375/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iz4SjUBiqkc
Importance of Food Safety & Sanitation • Lack of proper food safety & sanitation can cause: • Loss of customers & sales • Loss of prestige & reputation • Lawsuits – resulting in court fees • Increased insurance premiums • Lowered employee morale / absenteeism • Need for retraining