The Dogma. Nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) is important…Why? The central dogma of Molecular Biology DNA (genes, chromosomes) begets itself (replication), as well as RNA (transcription)) RNA begets protein (translation) Which proteins a cell expresses (and how much), dictates what a cell does.
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Pentose Sugar (2’ OH=ribose, 2’H=deoxyribose)
From Kimball’s biology pages: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/N/Nucleotides.html
Sugar (2’ OH=ribose, 2’H=deoxyribose)
DNA chains are connected by a phosphate between sugar carbons
The chain has polarity: the phosphate bridges between 5’ and 3’ carbons (almost never 5’ and 5’, or 3’ and 3’)
Chemistry dictates addition is always to 3’ end of chain. In other words: synthesis is always 5’ to 3’
Restriction enzymes are endonucleases (see Lee lecture)
hairpins (intra-molecular pairing of single strand)
heteroduplex (double stranded DNA with the occasional mismatch, forms “bubbles” in double helix.
Can be caused by renaturation of partially complementary sequence, or replication errors