psyc 1120 day 17 and 18 10 31 and 11 5 2012
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PSYC 1120 Day 17 and 18 10/31 and 11/5 2012. Agenda. Film clip: Life’s lessons Complete grade school Adolescence Review stages to date Distribute Test #3. Film: Life’s Lessons. Families and Children. Important:

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Presentation Transcript
  • Film clip: Life’s lessons
  • Complete grade school
  • Adolescence
  • Review stages to date
  • Distribute Test #3



families and children
Families and Children


  • Children raised in the same households by the same parents do not necessarily share the same home environment.
  • Changes in the family affect every family member differently (e.g. depending on age and/or gender).
  • Most parents respond to each of their children differently.
family function
Family Function
  • Family function: The way a family works to meet the needs of its members. Children need families to:
  • provide basic material necessities
  • encourage learning
  • help them develop self-respect
  • nurture friendships
  • foster harmony and stability
family structure
Family Structure
  • Family structure: The legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.
    • Nuclear family – no more than two generations
      • Parent(s) and children
    • Extended families – various generations with diversified family ties (aunts, uncles, grandparents, cousins, in-laws, etc.)
family trouble
Family Trouble
  • Dysfunctional family: A family that does not support all its members
  • Three factors increase the likelihood of dysfunction:
    • Low Income
    • Instability
    • Low Harmony
low income
Low Income
  • The crucial question to ask about any risk factor (e.g. poverty, divorce, job loss, eviction) is whether or not it increases the stress on a family
    • The family-stress model contends that the adults’ stressful reaction to poverty is crucial in determining the effect on the children.
  • Children in middle childhood prefer continuity
    • Upsetting changes include moving to a new home, being sent to a new school, and changes in the family structure
    • Adults might not realize that these transitions affect schoolchildren
  • Children feel a need for harmony
    • Parents who habitually fight are more likely to divorce, move, and otherwise disrupt the child’s life.
    • Remarriage of divorced parents is often difficult for children due to jealousy, stress, and conflict.
    • Children frequently suffer if parents physically or verbally abuse each other.
the peer group
The Peer Group
  • Culture of children: The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.
    • Fashion
    • Language
    • Peer culture
bullies and victims
Bullies and Victims
  • Bullying: Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
  • Bully-victim: Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well
    • Also called a provocative victim because he or she does things that elicit bullying, such as stealing a bully’s pencil
  • Why?
    • motivated by anger, revenge or frustration
    • entertainment or because they are bored
    • torment others and bolster one’s own ego
  • Preventing cyberbullying
    • Educating the kids about the consequences (losing their ISP or IM accounts) helps. Teaching them to respect others and to take a stand against bullying of all kinds helps too.
cyber bullying
Cyber bullying
  • Nebraska Law:

L.B. 205, 2008: R.R.S. Nebraska 121A.069579-2,137

Grounds for long-term suspension, expulsion, or mandatory reassignment, subject to the procedural provisions of the Student Discipline Act, when such activity occurs on school

grounds, in a vehicle owned, leased, or contracted by a school being used for a school purpose or in a vehicle being driven

for a school purpose by a school employee or by his or her designee, or at a school-sponsored activity or athletic event

successful efforts to eliminate bullying
Successful Efforts to Eliminate Bullying

The whole school must be involved, not just the identified bullies.

Intervention is more effective in the earlier grades.

Evaluation of results is critical.

morality in middle childhood
Morality in Middle Childhood


Lawrence Kohlberg (1963): Described stages of morality that stem from three levels of moral reasoning, with two stages at each level

  • Preconventional moral reasoning: Emphasizes rewards and punishments
  • Conventional moral reasoning: Emphasizes social rules
  • Postconventional moral reasoning: Emphasizing moral principles
criticisms of kohlberg
Criticisms of Kohlberg

Kohlberg ignored culture and gender.

Kohlberg’s levels could be labeled personal (preconventional), communal (conventional), and worldwide (postconventional)  family is not included.

The participants in Kohlberg’s original research were all boys.

Carol Gilligan – reworked Kohlberg’s ideas in “Women’s Ways of Knowing”

  • Review sequence of puberty
  • Compare development of boys to development of girls
  • Consequences of growth spurt
sequence of puberty males
Sequence of Puberty: Males
  • Initial appearance of pubic hair
  • Growth of the testes and penis
  • First ejaculation
  • A peak in the growth spurt
  • Voice deepening
  • Beard development
  • Completion of pubic hair growth
sequence of puberty females
Sequence of Puberty:Females
  • Beginning of breast development
  • Initial pubic hair
  • The growth spurt
  • Widening of the hips
  • Menarche
  • Completion of pubic hair and breast development
Need for sex education
  • Where do children/teens get their information?Allgeir study: most informative source
allgeir results
Allgeir results
  • School courses
  • Mother
  • Printed matter (books, pamphlets, Internet, etc.)
  • Peers
  • Father
  • Boy Friend or Girl Friend
adolescent egocentrism
Adolescent Egocentrism
  • Fables and Illusions
    • Personal Fable
    • Illusion of Invulnerability or Invincibility Fable
    • Imaginary audience
  • Peer pressure
Social-Psychological Development
  • Freud -- genital stage
  • Erikson -- identity versus role confusion
relationships with parents
Relationships with Parents

Conflicts with Parents

  • Parent–adolescent conflict typically peaks in early adolescence and is more a sign of attachment than of distance


  • Petty, peevish arguing, usually repeated and ongoing.


  • Although teenagers may act as if they no longer need their parents, neglect can be very destructive.
relationships with parents1
Relationships with Parents

Do You Know Where Your Teenager Is?

Parental monitoring: Parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom.

  • Positive consequences when part of a warm, supportive relationship
  • Negative when overly restrictive and controlling
  • Worst: Psychological control - a disciplinary technique in which parents make a child feel guilty and impose gratefulness by threatening to withdraw love and support

Identity versus Role Confusion:

  • Erikson’s term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.


  • A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.
Identity achievement:
  • Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans.
not yet achieved
Not Yet Achieved

Role confusion (identity diffusion):

  • A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is.


  • Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis.


  • An adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions. Going to college is a common example.
four areas of identity achievement
Four Areas of Identity Achievement
  • Religious Identity
  • Gender Identity
    • Gender identity: A person’s acceptance of the roles and behaviors that society associates with the biological categories of male and female.
    • Sexual orientation: A term that refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes.
  • Political/Ethnic Identity
four areas of identity achievement1
Four Areas of Identity Achievement
  • Vocational identity: Rarely achieved until age 25 for at least four reasons:
    • Few teenagers can find meaningful work.
    • It takes years to acquire the skills needed for many careers (premature to select a vocation at age 16).
    • Most jobs are unlike those of a generation ago, so it is unwise for youth to foreclose on a vocation.
    • Most new jobs are in the service or knowledge sectors of the economy. To be employable, adolescents spend years mastering literacy, logic, technology and human relations.
Practical Cognition
  • Adapting -- to the environment -- individual attempts to accommodate behavior to the situation
  • Shaping-- individual attempts to change the environment
Practical Cognition
  • Selection-- individual opts to escape the situationdo exercise on practical cognition; discuss
review of stages
Review of Stages
  • Test over Chapters 7 – 10 will be distributed on Monday 11/5 and will be due Nov. 12.
  • Begin reading about adulthood