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Chapter 13. New forces challenged the working of seventeenth-century Western society, where social, political, and family life was organized in a hierarchy of ranks. Stresses in Traditional Society. Mounting Demands on Rural Life The Family Functioned as both a social an economic unit

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Chapter 13
Chapter 13

  • New forces challenged the working of seventeenth-century Western society, where social, political, and family life was organized in a hierarchy of ranks.

Stresses in traditional society
Stresses in Traditional Society

  • Mounting Demands on Rural Life

    • The Family

      • Functioned as both a social an economic unit

      • Married for practical as well as sentimental reasons

      • Marriages lasted until death

      • Parents often sent children away to work as apprentices, domestics, or laborers.

    • Population Changes

      • Population decreases occurred during the first half of the seventeenth century.

      • Poverty, famine, and disease grew through these decades

      • The severe winters of the “little ice age” froze rivers and fields, and wet summers destroyed crops.

      • The staple dish consisted of mice in 1651.

Stresses in traditional society1
Stresses in Traditional Society

  • Tax Revolts

    • Peasants avoided tax collectors and hid what assets they could, and attacked the hated tax collectors.

    • In the 1630’s, French peasants rose against tax increases, & in 1647, women demanding more bread led riots.

  • Pressures on the Upper Orders

    • Competing Centers of Power

      • Nobles often challenged royal policies and decried royal “tyranny” as a violation of divine law.

      • Women became entwined in struggles between monarchs and aristocrats, and many women became important friends and unofficial advisors to the leaders.

  • Stresses in traditional society2
    Stresses in Traditional Society

    • Royal Absolution

      • -System of elevated royal authority

      • Kings of the day commanded more loyalty, control, and resources that their predecessors had, and they justified their right to rule as absolute.

    Chapter 131
    Chapter 13

    • As king of the most powerful nation in Europe, Louis XIV of France increased the authority of the monarchy; his reign exemplified the development of royal absolutism.

    Royal absolutism in france
    Royal Absolutism in France

    • Henry IV Secures the Monarchy

    • Richelieu Elevates Royal Authority

    • Mazarin Overcomes the Opposition

      • The Fronde

        • Mazarin, Anne, and Louis XIV faced uncoordinated revolts that forced them to flee to Paris.

        • The Fronde – the name of a child’s slingshot game

        • Revolts stemmed primarily from French subjects’ objections to high taxes and increasing royal power.

    Royal absolutism in france1
    Royal Absolutism in France

    • The Sun King Rises

      • Versailles

        • Louis XIV initiated massive public works projects that glorified him, his government, and his reign.

        • His greatest architectural project was a new palace.

      • Versailles’ Critics

        • The monument to royal absolutism had its critics

        • Countess de Lafayette & Pierre Jurieu

    Royal absolutism in france2
    Royal Absolutism in France

    • “Classical” Literature

      • Louis XIV attracted to Versailles leading French artists and literary figures, and it became the “classical” period in French culture

      • Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine, Jean-Baptiste Moliere, Madeleine de Scudery, Madame de Sevigne, and The Duke of Saint-Simon.

    • Visual Arts

      • The visual arts of the period glorified monarchs, and kings and aristocrats still favored the baroque style.

      • Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin

    Royal absolutism in france3
    Royal Absolutism in France

    • Colbert

      • Louis assigned Jean-Baptiste Colbert to manage his finances.

      • He founded the Royal Academy of Sciences, promoted mercantilistic economic policies, built a large navy, and subjected manufacturing to the most minute regulation and supervision.

      • His family shared in his success, becoming ministers, gaining high offices in the church, marrying well, and securing top positions in the military.

    • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

      • The king’s demands for religious conformity and his military ambitions were the most destructive of his policies.

    Royal absolutism in france4
    Royal Absolutism in France

    • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (cont.)

      • In 1685, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, which in 1598 had granted tolerance to the Protestant minority.

      • He outlawed Protestantism and ordered Protestant churches demolished.

      • Huguenots emigrated, taking their wealth and skills with them to Protestant-friendly areas in Europe and America.

    • Wars of Aggression

      • During the last four decades of his 72-year reign, Louis fought four wars of aggression.

      • He wanted more territory, more glory, and more wealth, and he went for the Spanish and Austrian Habsburg lands and on the Dutch.

    Royal absolutism in france5
    Royal Absolutism in France

    • Wars of Aggression (cont.)

      • Louis XIV was forced to accept the Peace of Utricht.

      • In the end, he possessed little more than what he had started with some 50 years earlier.

    • Assessing Louis XIV

      • For many monarchs, France under Louis XIV became the model of absolutism.

      • His expenditures and wars created misery for commoners.

    Chapter 132
    Chapter 13

    • In the states east of the Elbe, central government was weaker, peasants lost more of their freedom, and the urban middle class declined, although the tendency toward absolutism intensified during the seventeenth century.

    The struggle for sovereignty in eastern europe
    The Struggle for Sovereignty in Eastern Europe

    • Centralizing the State in Brandenburg-Prussia

    • Austria Confronts the Ottomans and Expands Its Control

    The struggle for sovereignty in eastern europe1
    The Struggle for Sovereignty in Eastern Europe

    • Russia and Its Tsars Gain Prominence

      • The Romanovs

        • A period known as the “Time of Troubles” followed Ivan IV’s death.

        • To end the political chaos, a group of leading nobles in 1613 chose the 17-year-old Michael Romanov to rule as tsar.

      • Russian Expansion

        • Lured by wealth from access to Siberian furs, Russians went eastward into Asia, establishing fortified settlements.

        • Russia’s commercial and cultural contacts with the West expanded

    The struggle for sovereignty in eastern europe2
    The Struggle for Sovereignty in Eastern Europe

    • Peter the Great

      • Standing nearly seven feet tall he was always an imposing figure

      • At the age of 17, he took the rule of government from his elder sister.

      • He traveled to western Europe and learned as much as he could about Western politics, customs, and technology.

      • In 1698 he crushed a revolt of his bodyguards and silenced critics with a ruthlessness that cowed all potential troublemakers.

    • Russia’s Military Establishment

      • Peter devoted attention to his military establishment.

      • He built a navy and modernized the army, and recruits were drafted for life and branded with a cross on their left hand.

    The struggle for sovereignty in eastern europe3
    The Struggle for Sovereignty in Eastern Europe

    • Conflict with Sweden

      • Peter tried to seize lands bordering the Black Sea that the Ottoman Turks held.

      • Peter’s armies could not dislodge the Turks, so Peter turned toward Sweden, the Baltic Sea.

      • Sweden held large areas east and it ranked second only to Russia in size.

      • Peter initially lost battle after battle to Charles XII, and in the Battle of Poltava (1709), the Russians destroyed the Swedish army and managed to wound Charles.

      • The Treaty of Nystad in 1721 let Russia receive the Swedish Baltic provinces and some Polish territories.

      • Peter built a modern capital, St. Petersburg, that faced the west.

    Chapter 133
    Chapter 13

    • The Victory of the Nobility in Poland

    • Because of a history of cooperation in parliament by nobles and land-owning commoners, the struggle for sovereignty in England produced a government with ultimate authority resting in the constitution, not the king.

    The triumph of constitutionalism
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • The Nobility Loses Respect

      • New Wealth

        • Merchants and other enterprising individuals

        • Education became the key to upward mobility

        • Knowledge and service, rather than birth, seemed the measure of a man.

      • Sumptuary Laws

        • Europe had traditions in keeping the social classes separate, and regulate what kinds of clothing were appropriate for each social class.

        • Game laws giving the nobility the exclusive right to hunt on their own lands even allowed them to set lethal traps for poachers

    The triumph of constitutionalism1
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Protestantism Revitalized

    • James I Invokes the Divine Right of Kings

      • Religious Problems

        • King James I was unable to mollify the varying religious beliefs of his people.

      • Divine Right

        • James had written two treatises in which he asserted the divine right of kings.

        • “Kings have power of…life and death; they are judges over all their subjects and in all causes, and yet accountable to none but God.”

    The triumph of constitutionalism2
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Colonies

      • During James’s rule, the English colonies in North America grew

      • James hoped to generate new income from the Virginia colonies

  • Charles I Alienates Parliament

    • Concessions to Catholics

      • James’s son, Charles I married a sister of the Catholic king Louis XIII of France

      • Charles granted concessions to English Catholics, and English Protestants were horrified.

  • The triumph of constitutionalism3
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Parliament Gains Power

      • To raise the army and funds he needed to fight the Scots, Charles called Parliament.

      • Parliament forced him to agree that he could not disband them without their consent. C. 1645 GEORGES DE LA TOUR THE NEW BORN CHILD

  • “God Made Men and the Devil Made Kings”: Civil War 1642-1649

    • Charles Captured

      • Charles surrendered to the Scots

        and was moved from

        prison to prison

  • The triumph of constitutionalism4
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Women in War

      • Women from all social groups participated in the English civil war.

      • Noble women defended their fortified castles and working women disguised as men passed themselves off as Roundhead soldiers.

      • Women were well suited as spies, because people didn’t expect it.

    • Levellers

      • Groups of radical Protestants, known as Levellers, insisted that social justice become part of Parliament’s agenda.

    The triumph of constitutionalism5
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • The King Laid Low

      • Charles was accused of claiming to rule by divine right.

    • Charles Executed

      • January 30, 1649, the condemned king was led to a scaffold, and publicly executed.

    The triumph of constitutionalism6
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • A Puritan Republic is Born: The Commonwealth, 1649-1660

      • Domestic Distress

        • Disorder had torn at England

          since the civil war began

      • Lord Protector

        • Cromwell disbanded Parliament

          named himself “Lord Protector”

          of the Commonwealth of England,

          Scotland, and Ireland, and

          Established a military dictatorship.

          C. 1656 DIEGO VELASQUEZ

          LAS MENINAS

    The triumph of constitutionalism7
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Who Has the Power to Rule?

      • Thomas Hobbes

        • The English philosopher Thomas Hobbs wrote a political treatise, The Levitation.

        • He harbored a pessimistic view of human nature.

        • Everyone was driven by a quest for power and would try to exercise their power at the expense of their neighbors.

    • The Monarchy Restored, 1660-1688

      • John Bunyan

        • Was imprisoned in 1660 for preaching against the Restoration

        • He wrote Pilgrim’s Progress in 1678.

    The triumph of constitutionalism8
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Fiscal Problems

      • Members of Parliament had severely curtailed royal power over taxation.

      • Charles II tried to exert more control over the colonies in North America.

    • Plague and Fire

      • In 1665, England experienced a plague, and 70,000 people died in London alone.

      • The following year, fire broke out in London, destroying 13,000 dwellings and 87 churches.

    The triumph of constitutionalism9
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • The Glorious Revolution

      • William and Mary

        • William’s politics and his religion suited the English protestants.

        • James decided to flee France

      • England’s Bill of Rights

        • Parliament decided that James’s flight from England constituted an abduction of the throne.

        • Parliament passed a Bill of Rights firmly stating that kings were subject to the laws of the land.

    The triumph of constitutionalism10
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Royalism Reconsidered: John Locke

      • Hanover Dynasty

        • Parliament then passed the crown to George I who ruled the German principality of Hanover.

    • The Netherlands: The Sovereignty of Local Authority

      • The United Provinces

        • The Spanish Netherlands formed a buffer between the United Provinces and the divine right monarchy of France.

    The triumph of constitutionalism11
    The Triumph of Constitutionalism

    • Dutch Prosperity

      • The seventeenth century has been called the “golden age” of the United Provinces.

      • Amsterdam became the commercial and financial center of Europe.

      • The Dutch grew rich from their activities as major slave traders in the New World.

    • Religious Toleration

      • The Dutch exhibited an unusual degree of religious toleration for their time.

      • They allowed Catholics and Jews to practice their religions.