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STREAMFLOW and HYDROGRAPH ANALYSIS. Stream flow is one of the most important topics in engineering hydrology because it directly relate to water supply, flood control, reservoir design, navigation, irrigation, drainage, water quality, and others. Stream Flow Measurement s.

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streamflow and hydrograph analysis
STREAMFLOW and HYDROGRAPH ANALYSIS

Stream flow is one of the most important topics in engineering hydrology because it directly relate to water supply, flood control, reservoir design, navigation, irrigation, drainage, water quality, and others.

stream flow measurement s
Stream Flow Measurements
  • Serves as the basis for many water resources engineering designs
  • Two approaches
    • Measurement of water stage;
    • Measurement of flow velocity
  • Measurement of Water Stage
    • Water stage: the elevation above some arbitrary datum of water surface at a station
    • Types of Gages Measuring River Stage:
      • Staff gage – vertical or inclined
      • Suspended – weight gage
      • Recording gage
      • Crest – stage gage ( used to indicate high water mark)
      • Misc (Table 1).
stage discharge relation

H

H

Q

t

t

Q

Discharge Hydrograph

Stage Hydrograph

Stage-Discharge Curve

or Rating Curve

Stage-Discharge Relation
  • When water stages are measured, we need additional information to estimate the flow rates (or discharges)
stage discharge relation1
Stage-Discharge Relation
  • Typical relationship: Q = a(H +b)c
  • The function relationship between H & Q has to be calibrated locally for different stations
storage hysterisis
Storage Hysterisis
  • In natural rivers, the H-Q relationship in general appears to be a loop, rather than single-valued.
devices for flow velocity measurement
Devices for Flow Velocity Measurement
  • Current Meters
    • Cups
    • Propellers

V = a + bN

where V = flow velocity; a = starting velocity to overcome mechanical friction; b = equipment calibration constant; N = revolutions/sec.

  • Pitot Tubes: Suitable only for clean water
  • Floats: Suitable for straight channel, V = L/T
measurement of stream flow discharge 1
Measurement of Stream Flow Discharge - 1
  • Stage – Discharge (Rating) Curve
  • Mid-Section Method
extension of rating curve
Extension of Rating Curve
  • - During the event of large flood, it is impossible or impractical to measure discharge directly. More often than not, the flood stage goes beyond the range of the data range used to define the rating curve. Therefore, extrapolation of the ration curve is needed when water level is recorded below the lowest or above the highest level.
  • - Large errors can result if the functional form of rating curve, Q = a(H+b)c, is extrapolated beyond the recorded gauge discharges without consideration of the cross-section geometry and controls
  • - Graphical extension or by the fitted Q-H relationship is adequate only for small extension
  • - For large extrapolation beyond the active channel cross-section, hydraulic formula can be used to estimate the stage-discharge relation.
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