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Identifiction of IBD using an electronic ‘e’ nose. Arasaradnam RP 1,2 , Ouaret N 3 , Nwokolo C 1 , Bardhan KD 4 , Covington JA 3 1University Hospital Coventry & Warwickshire & 2Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Medical School, University of Warwick

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identifiction of ibd using an electronic e nose

Identifiction of IBD using an electronic ‘e’ nose

Arasaradnam RP1,2, Ouaret N3, Nwokolo C1, Bardhan KD4, Covington JA3

1University Hospital Coventry & Warwickshire &

2Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Medical School,

University of Warwick

3School of Engineering, University of Warwick, 4Rotherham NHS Trust

10th BROAD Meeting – February 2012

1

the senses
The Senses

5 Senses by Aristotle

  • Sight
  • Hearing
  • Smell
  • Taste
  • Touch

But also…

  • Nociception (pain)
  • Equilibrioception (balance)
  • Proprioception & kinesthesia (joint motion and acceleration)
  • Sense of time
  • Thermoception (temperature differences)
  • Magnetoception (direction)
smell @ warwick
‘Smell’ @ Warwick
  • First research group dedicated to the sense of smell
  • First company making artificial olfaction instruments
  • First commercial products manufactured here…
  • Long history of smell research…

Life in ‘Smell’

Persaud & Dodd Nature 1982

human olfactory system
Human olfactory system

Axel & Buck Nobel Prize 2004

how does it work
How does it work?

Array of sensors with different broad sensitivity e.g. Alcohols

Operate by measuring change in resistance/capacitance/frequency

e-

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If a different compound had caused the air to change, the output pattern

will be different:

Each sensor changes its resistance by a different amount, making a pattern of the change

Measurement of baseline resistance

electronic noses
Electronic noses

Food and cosmetics

Gas emissions and

Manufacturing processes

Applications of

Electronic nose

Environmental

pollutants

Medical

applications

Homeland security

sampling
Sampling
  • Disease alters gut flora -altered fermentation patterns which alters the composition of gases emitted from urine
  • Urine headspace measured using an electronic nose and FAIMS (field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry)
  • Novel method – non invasive
  • Possible faster and earlier detection of IBD
methods
Methods
  • 48 patients and 14 volunteers; n = 62
  • UC (n=20; active n=4), CD (n=20; active n=4) and 14 controls
  • Urine analysis with ‘e’ nose and FAIMS
  • Analysis was by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) – not pre-classified and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) (pre-classified)

E - nose

warwick electronic nose
Warwick Electronic Nose

Filtered air is passed over

sample (1 L/min), capturing gas/vapours emanating from the sample

Sample air is passed over sensors (300 secs) followed by clean air (300 secs)

10 ml of sample, placed in a sterilin bottle & heated to 40 oC

separation of ibd with e nose
Separation of IBD with ‘E’ nose

Arasaradnam et al JMET 2011

faims field asymetric ion mobility spectrometry
FAIMS – Field Asymetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry
  • Simple fast analysis of vapours and gases
  • Detects chemicals in complex mixtures
  • Identifies by mobility (ion movement through an electric field)
  • Mobility determined by molecule size and mass
  • Chemicals identified and separated
  • Can train to identify anomalies
  • Creates a chemical fingerprint
faims
FAIMS

Covington et al 2011

summary of chemical peaks in volunteers and crohns and uc patients

What are we detecting?

Summary of chemical peaks in volunteers and Crohns and UC patients

HA=hydrogen azide (HN3); AA=acetic acid (CH3COOH); PG=propylene glycol (C3H6(OH)2); A=aldehydes; K=ketones; OA=organic acids.

summary
Summary
  • Potential alternate diagnosis method
  • Able to distinguish between control and IBD patient groups
  • Can also identify specific disease groups ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s
  • Greatest difference is shown between diseased and non-diseased
  • FAIMS can also be used to identify diseased groups and supports e nose data
thank you questions
Acknowledgements:

BROAD Foundation

Thank you - Questions

the future.......?