Warmup • Why were Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus, and Julius Caesar all killed?
Augustus Caesar • Not officially emperor • Consul – highest patrician office • Tribune – Highest plebian office • Imperator – Temporary military dictator • Princepscivitatis – first citizen • Senate powerless • Army loyal to Augustus, not to Rome
PaxRomana • War with Germanic tribes along border • Army became defensive • Rome = largest world city • 500,000-750,000 people • Citizens entertained to keep rebellions in check • Trade between China and Rome
Diocletian’s Reforms • 293 CE • “Third Century Crisis” • Civil Wars • Skirmishes with German tribes • Diocletian divided the empire in two and created the tetrarchy • Western and Eastern Empire • Price fixing • Occupation fixing • Persecution of Christians to regain favor of the gods
RIP 476 CE RIP 1453 CE
Constantine • 321 Constantine converts to Christianity • Battle of the Milvian Bridge • “In this sign conquer” • Turns Byzantium into Constantinople • Moves emperor’s palace there • Trade capital of Rome • 380 CE: Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Contrast the Two Regions Western Empire Eastern Empire Older tradition, older civilizations Greek based Eastern church More trade Wealthier More skilled bureaucracy • Civil wars common • More pressure from barbarians • Latin Based • Catholic church
The End of the West • 400 CE: Huns invade • Drive Germans into Roman Empire • Man soldiers were already Germanic anyways • 410 CE: Rome sacked (again) • By the Visigoths • Population of Rome now below 200,000 • 476 CE: Last western emperor sent out of Rome (Romulus Augustulus)
Extra Credit • Find the tomb of Alaric the Visigoth • 100 for a daily grade • Try to do it in the next few weeks so I can put in in on your 2nd 6 weeks average
Wait… • So did the Huns destroy classical civilization? • Attila and his Huns drive out the German tribes which destroy the western Roman Empire • The White Huns pressure the Gupta Empire until it collapses after defeating them • The Han Chinese are financially ruied by the Xiongnu, who many historians believe are a group of • wait for it… • The Huns
Why the End of the West? • Barbarian invasions • Unclear succession of emperors • Declining Roman identity Also maybe… • Lead pipes? • Christianity?
What the I don’t even… • Thesis • Changes • Continuities • Outside influence • Analysis • Restate thesis
Fake CCOT Analyze changes and continuities in the Greek Empire from 800 BCE to 100 BCE.
Thesis From 800 BCE to 100 BCE, the Greek civilization experienced many changes and continuities. Changes included the organization of political power and the balance of power on the Greek peninsula. Continuities included the spread of Hellenism and military expansion.
Listing and Explaining • 1 point for listing changes • 1 point for listing continuities • 1 point for explaining changes (1-2 sentences each) • 1 point for explaining changes (1-2 sentences each)
Outside Influence During this era, the Persians attacked from Central Asia. This attack united Greeks in the short term, but drove a wedge between the city-states of Athens and Sparta in the long term. The defeat of the Persians, such as at Marathon, led to the rise of Athens as a naval power and the trade that came with dominating the Aegean Sea.
Analyze“_______ happened because _________” The buildup of political unity in Greece was a long process. The formation of the polis was because of the population buildup from earlier agricultural developments. City-states formed temporary alliances, for example during the Greco-Persian war, in order to defeat common enemies. The entire region of Greece was forced to take sides in the Peloponnesian War between Athens, as exemplified by the Melians, who were forced to choose. Finally, Philip of Macedon conquered and united Greece under one government, and this led to his son, Alexander, spreading Greek government and culture throughout the Middle East and Central Asia.