Warmup • Suppose a bacterial colony is 30 & they split every hour. In how many hours will it take for their population to grow to 1,920 bacteria? • Assume that a bacterium can divide every 15 minutes. If you start with 2cells, how many bacteria will be present in 2.5 hours
Disease Transmission • Contagion – A disease that is spread from one organism to another • Contagions are diseases that are contagious! • Example: the flu is a contagion because it can spread from one person to another
If not passed from person to person its not a contagion Examples: • Heart disease • Depression • Cancer • Asthma
So how are contagions spread? • Pathogen: a microbe that causes the disease • Carrier: An individual infected with a disease, can spread disease, even though they show NO SYMPTOMS!!! HIV Postive? Or not?
Vector • A smaller organism that passes the disease from one organism to another • Fleas transmit the bubonic plague • Ticks transmit Lyme disease • Mosquitoes transmit malaria, yellow fever, West Nile Virus
Pandemic vs. Epidemic • An epidemic is when the number of people who become infected rises well beyond what is expected within a country or a part of a country. When the infection takes place in several countries at the same time it then starts turning into a pandemic. • A pandemic is usually caused by a new virus strain or subtype - a virus humans either have no immunity against, or very little immunity. If immunity is low or non-existent the virus is much more likely to spread around the world if it becomes easily human transmissible. *Put simply, a pandemic covers a much wider geographical area, often worldwide. A pandemic also infects more people than an epidemic. An epidemic is specific to one city, region or country, while a pandemic goes much further than national borders
What if… Let’s say I’m MOLD X, and I’m a great bacterial killer. I’m going to be used in antibiotics! At first, I’m pretty effective at knocking out bacteria. But after awhile, bacteria adapt and become resistant to my moves.
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE in bacteria occurs when mutant bacteria survive an antibiotic treatment and give rise to a stronger, more resistant population.