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urbanization and foreign immigration progressive feminism
Urbanization and Foreign ImmigrationProgressive Feminism
  • “At the center of the new industrial order was the city. But to accommodate the global migration of laborers and families, to support the sprawling factories and the masses who kept them going, urban centers of the late 19th century had to reinvent themselves.”
urbanization and foreign immigration
Urbanization and Foreign Immigration
  • During the period between 1880 and 1930, the U.S. experienced dramatic increases in industrialization, immigration and urbanization.
  • Trades were Mechanizing and more people were working longer hours for less pay;
  • City populations were swelling due to immigration and an influx from the countryside;
  • By 1900, immigrants formed 1/3 population of all major US cities;
  • Cities were overcrowded, unsanitary and crime-ridden
cities and eco systems
Cities and Eco-systems
  • Surrounding country sides transformed to feed these cities, provide fuel and transportation and even leisure.
  • Smaller city municipal structures mirrored their larger sister metropolis's.
  • Some even specialized in services and goods—such as Milwaukee(beer), Tulsa(oil), and Hershey, PA(chocolate).
foreign immigration
Foreign Immigration
  • Why did so many Europeans choose to migrate to America at these times?
  • How did immigration transform American society?
  • How did Americans react to immigration
  • Many newly arriving immigrants when seeing the American shore wept tears of joy. They had finally arrived in the “Land of Milk and Honey.”
  • The thought of an egalitarian and democratic society of riches was more than they could bear.
  • The reality was much different—Once the “native” Americans realized immigration might be bad, they began to take counter-measures to discourage or at least control immigration.
exclusionary acts
Exclusionary acts
  • Chinese exclusionary act;
  • “Gentleman’s Agreement—exclude Japanese;
  • Set up something called The Dillingham Commission. 1907 Senate set up a commission to study the effects and origins of immigration.
  • Crucial shift in demographics—many coming from Eastern Europe and Asia—all these were undesirable—they were inferior and a drain on society—explains the high crime rate, illiteracy, and other social issues.
why immigrate
Why Immigrate?
  • 17th century immigrated fleeing religious persecution or political turmoil; America needed both skilled and unskilled workers.
  • 19th century all things changed: In Europe
  • 1) dramatic population increase;
  • 2) Spread of commercial agriculture(displaced many workers).;
  • 3) Rise of European factory system;
  • 4) Proliferation of inexpensive transportation (steamships and railroads—small shop owners and farmers forced off the land—may as well immigrate)
why immigrate to cities
Why Immigrate to Cities?
  • Though some immigrants made it to the countryside, many remained in cities.
  • They arrived with little money; farm equipment and land expensive; many were duped into coming; no land or assistance available.
  • Many opted for urban life; such as the Irish and the Jews—many wanted the vibrant cultural and religious life and education.
  • Native—refers in this context as one who considers himself a “true American.”
  • Some argued immigration = large supply of unskilled workers=boosted economy;
  • Minds changed when they became afraid immigrants would soon out number “True Americans.” This would create social issues. (Haymarket Bombing seem to add veracity).
  • Haymarket Square Riot(May 4, 1886)—anarchists loosely organized national strike(8hr work day); some police officers were killed, they retaliated and some anarchists were killed; then a bomb exploded; triggered a national wave of immigration fears. (some hung others imprisoned)
urbanization and foreign immigration10
Urbanization and Foreign Immigration
  • Three Great waves of Immigration:
  • 1) 1815-1860: 5 million settled mostly from England, Ireland, Germany and Scandinavia;
  • 2) 1865-1890: 10 million: again mostly northwestern Europe;
  • 3) 1890-1914: 15 million mostly from Austro-Hungary, Turkey, Lithuania, Russia, and many Jews, Greeks, Italians, and Romanians.
justification for exclusion
Justification for Exclusion
  • Anglo-Saxon Myth—put forth by john Fiske; this suggested that human evolution had culminated in the Anglo-Saxon race.
  • Outside northwestern Europe people lacked mental power or social capabilities as did the Anglo-Saxons;
  • Used phrenology(measuring slope and size of forehead) to determine intelligence—higher, the more intelligent and vice versa.
  • Eugenics—heredity determined by cultural and social patterns—selective breeding would enhance civilization.
justification for exclusion12
Justification for Exclusion
  • Many used Eugenics as scientific proof to justify “racism.” These were inferior peoples.
  • Dr. Charles Benedict Davenport wrote a book suggesting that those of darker pigmentation, smaller stature—more given to larceny, kidnapping, assault, murder and rape—tended to be more musical and artsy, but lacked perspective of responsibility—what was needed was to breed these people like Race Horses to attain racial purification.
exclusionary acts13
Exclusionary Acts
  • Immigration restriction League—formed in 1894 by Boston Lawyers and philanthropists who urged that immigrants be given a literacy test.
  • Not discriminatory, just keep out illiterates and undesirables.
  • Bill passed, but Grover Cleveland vetoed it—but Woodrow Wilson in 1917 signed a literacy bill
immigration restriction league
Immigration Restriction League
  • Henry Cabot Lodge, sr. (Boston Brahmin)—as a legal consultant and board member of the league stated— “It’s the object not to advocate the exclusion of laborers or other immigrants of such character and standards that fit them to become citizens, but public opinion must be made to recognize the necessity of a further exclusion of elements undesirable for citizenship or injurious to our national character.”
victorianism and convention
Victorianism and Convention
  • “All feminists are suffragists, but not all suffragists are feminists.”
  • “Cult of true Womanhood.” Preached 4 cardinal virtues for women:
  • 1) Piety—women far more religious than men;
  • 2) Purity—pure of heart and mind—participated in sex, but to chaste of spirit to enjoy it;
  • 3) Submission—perpetual childhood passively responding to the actions and decisions of man;
  • 4) Domesticity—Home and Hearth the domain of woman.
victorian and convention
Victorian and Convention
  • Two constant goals of Victorianism: 1) rejection of sin and 2) practice of responsibility;
  • Women were the weaker vessels therefore needed help to avoid sin and temptation—male the rightful superior and dominant protector of the family.
three areas of social change concerning to victorians
Three Areas of Social Change concerning to Victorians
  • 1) Dress Reform—women moving away from the restrictive bustles and corsets; wearing bloomers and simple dresses—this was considered “sexually aggressive.”
  • 2) Education—accepting the notion of Darwinism, many doctors believed women stopped evolving sooner than men; therefore mentally not suited for the rigors of higher education;
  • If women devoted themselves to the 3 Rs they would become deficient in the 4th R Reproduction.
three areas of social change
Three Areas of Social Change
  • 3) Workforce; poor women and immigrant women had to work;
  • But proponents of Womanhood argued the working world one step on a downward spiral leading women to prostitution; if nothing else it would give them independence undermining their fathers and husbands and endangering reproduction
  • Politically correct speech is not new. For instance, the Victorians avoiding unpleasantries or innuendos changed terminology.
  • Arms and legs seemed sexually suggestive—so call them “Limbs.” At dinner, one requested “Light “ or “dark” meat never Legs or breasts.
  • 1874—Woman’s Christian temperance Union—originally concerned about temperance as evil to society—Francis Willard most famous and successful president.
  • Eventually evolved into Suffrage and other reform movements—women learning how to be organizers and leaders.
  • Anthony Comstock crusaded against pornography, gambling, prostitution and even nude art models—U.S. Grant in 1873 signed the Comstock Law.
  • Led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (national women's suffrage association). More radical than the WCTU. Accepted only women; opposed the 15th amendment; focused on family as the real source of inequality—chained women to the home and hearth; marriage was designed to benefit men and disempowering women.
  • (15th amend. Caused split in women’s movement)
  • American Woman Suffrage Association(AWSA); more moderate, allowed men to join, ratified the 15th amend.
victoria claflin woodhull
Victoria Claflin Woodhull
  • Very outspoken feminist; dabbled in spiritualism, ran a successful brokerage firm(clients such as Cornelius Vanderbilt);
  • Published a newspaper with Marxist leanings;
  • In 1872, declared herself candidate for President of U.S.
  • Called herself a “Free Lover” and advocated the overthrow of the U.S. government—w/o free love it was submissive love!
three main feminist movements
Three Main Feminist Movements
  • 1) Suffragists—focused on getting vote; natural right to vote; women in many cases better than men; more noble, spiritual, purify the political process;
  • 2) Social Feminists—wanted suffrage, but also social reforms; Jane Addams and Florence Kelley; saw the state as beneficial agent of social welfare; tended to be conservative, but pragmatic; wanted to vote to reform society and embraced world peace; reunited the AWSA and NWSA into the NAWSA(National American Woman Suffrage Association)—headed by Carrie Chapman Catt.
three main feminist movements28
Three Main Feminist Movements
  • 3) Radical Feminists—much stronger critique of society, economics, and politics. Most prominent was Charlotte Perkins Gillman—a sociologists, author, lecturer and socialist;
  • Penned a book, Women and Economics: condemned the cult of true womanhood:
  • 1) common humanity shared by men and women—more important than sexual differences;
  • 2) social environment not biology determined the roles of men and women;
  • 3) Women should be released from the home to make a broader contribution to society.
alice paul
Alice Paul
  • Introduced first Equal Rights Amend, 1916.
  • Radical feminist—ERA considered to radical for the time—most feminists rejected it outright—feared it would endanger the vote and other protective legislation for women.
end of feminism
End of Feminism
  • 1920s these movements died down; women gained the right to vote no need to continue activism; three discoveries made—
  • 1) Women did not vote in block; no real women’s vote;
  • 2) struggle for suffrage no longer united disparate elements of the feminist movement;
  • 3) younger women less interested in reform more interested in rebelling against normal social conventions with their male counterparts;
  • More interested in smoking, drinking, bobbing hair, reading risqué literature and doing the “Charleston” and exploring the new found sexual freedoms of the 20s and the automobile.
summary of progressivism
Summary of Progressivism
  • The Progressive System of Beliefs
    • Progressives: moderate modernizers not revolutionaries
    • Philosophy of pragmatism
  • The Pragmatic Approach
    • Behaviorism (study and change this incrementally)
    • Social jurisprudence (keep it legal, but in the sense of a changing practicality—”guide by light of reason.”)
    • Brandeis Brief (1908) highlighted the damaging effects of long working hours on women (Muller vs. Oregon—not so much legal precedent but on social fairness attitude)
how did they achieve this
How did they achieve this?

“Seeing the nation riven by conflict, progressives tried to restore a sense of community through the ideal of a single public interest.”

Muckrakers—Nellie Bly, Upton Sinclair, Sinclair Lewis. (exposes , The Jungle, The shame of the cities and child labor laws…)

Volunteers and professional Business people and Churches—all formed viable effective organizations …

idea find the good society
Idea: Find the Good Society
  • The Good society culminated in the following achievements (or so thought the progressives):
  • Social Welfare
    • Child labor legislation
    • Keating-Owen Act (1916) forbade goods manufactured by children to cross state lines
  • Woman Suffrage
    • Militant suffragists
    • Nineteenth Amendment