Ancient Civilizations of Africa West Africa A) Ghana B) Mali C)Songhai
A) Ghana: Their greatest achievement was in the area of trade. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3x-IwaVhnmo&feature=related They developed navigational techniques that allowed them to successfully cross the Sahara and trade with North Africa, the Middle East, and East Africa. They traveled across the Sahara by camel caravans, called “ships of the desert.” The camels were brought to Africa as a result of trade with people from North Africa. Major products traded were Gold, Salt, and Slaves.
B) Mali: They conquered Ghana. They expanded the size of the empire and continued the trade routes. Sundiataestablished the Mali Empire. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GC_rbF7SDgo&feature=related • The greatest achievement was the adoption of Islam as their official religion. • The leader responsible for this was Mansa Musa. • Impacts of converting to Islam: tolerance, equality, decrease in tribal problems, and an increased emphasis on education.
A. The city of Timbuktu. The first universities in Western Africa were built in this city. This city became the center of trade and learning. Islam expanded as did trade. • Timbuktubecame one of the most prosperous cities in Africa.
C) Songhai: This is considered the Golden Age of Western Africa. West Africa reached the height of prosperity and cultural achievement under this civilization. Achievements: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMc3BQiwqcw
The biggest problem during this time period was the start of the Atlantic Slave Trade. The Songhai traded slaves, with Europeans; this ultimately led to the downfall of African independence in West Africa. In 1591 they were conquered by Morocco.
The African Slave Tradehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdfFsc_2PS0 There were 2 different Slave Trades that existed in Africa The Trans- Atlantic slave trade to the Americas which lasted for just over three centuries, the Arab slave trade which has lasted fourteen centuries, and in some parts of the Muslim world is still continuing to this day. (Trans-Saharan or East African slave trade) slaves were obtained from along the west coast of Africa with the full and active co-operation of African kings and merchants. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tlc4g_Cn-E
African’s traded Slaves for goods like beads, cowrie shells (used as money), textiles, brandy, horses, and perhaps most importantly, guns. Africans were used primarily for Plantation work in the Caribbean, and Brazil The mortality rate for slaves being transported across the Atlantic was as high as 10%, the percentage of slaves dying in transit in the Trans Sahara trade was between 80 and 90%! While two out of every three slaves shipped across the Atlantic were men, the proportions were reversed in the Islamic slave trade.
The slaves shipped across the Atlantic were for agricultural work, the slaves destined for the Muslim Middle East were for sexual exploitation as concubines and Eunichs, in harems, and for military service. Slaves who went to the Americas could marry and have families, slaves destined for the Middle East were castrated, and most of the children born to the women were killed at birth. It is estimated that possibly as many as 11 million Africans were transported across the Atlantic, however, at least 28 million Africans were enslaved in the Muslim Middle East.
As at least 80% of those captured by Muslim slave traders were calculated to have died before reaching the slave markets, it is believed that the death toll was over 112 million people. While Christian Reformers started anti-slavery movements in Europe and North America, there was no opposition to slavery within the Muslim world. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yA4LOnxWVhw&NR=1
African Culture 1. Animism: The religion of traditional Africans was based on the belief that spirits inhabited all living things. Nature was to be treated with respect, (Worshipped), as were their ancestors and elders. 2. Extended Families: The people in Africa had to pool their labor and resources to survive. The conditions were too harsh for people to survive on their own.
East African Civilizations A. Egypt B. Kush C. Axum Egypt was called the Gift of the Nile. Without the Nile river civilization would not have been able to develop. Egypt is located in the Sahara desert.
How was Egypt able to develop into one of the greatest civilizations in the world? The Nile River overflowed each year at the same time. The river not only provided water, but a new layer of topsoil was deposited each year as a result of the floods. This combined with the fact that it was hot year round allowed for a surplus of food. Achievements of the Egyptians: a. Writing - used hieroglyphics to keep records and record history. b. Architecture - famous for the construction of the pyramids. c. Calendar - developed a calendar that accurately predicted the floods.
Mummification • http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/mummies/explore/main.html
Luxor • Google Image Result for http://www.imagesofanthropology.com/images/g.Temple_of_Luxor_Egypt_image_2.jpg
Egyptian Achievements Egyptian writing known as hieroglyphs, thought to be the world's earliest known writing system They performed surgery, setting of bones and had knowledge of pharmacopoeia The science of engineering was a major accomplishment