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Challenge of Independent Work • The challenge for students is managing the time away from scheduled lectures and tutorials, particularly managing the time for independent research and reading • The first stage could be to work out how much time you have for independent work
Allocating time Activity Calculation Each total Hours of sleep each night X 7= Hours per day grooming (washing; dressing) X 7= Hours eating / preparing food X 7= Total travel time (weekdays) X 5= Total travel time (weekends) X 2= Hours of work (paid or vol) per week Hours of lectures and tutorials per week Av. hours per week on leisure, family, social Hours on other domestic responsibilities Total= Plus 7 extra leeway hours: + 7 = Grand Total=
168 Hours • There are 168 hours in any week. Deduct the total committed hours from 168 to give you an approximate idea how much free time you have left for independent study and course work. Total hours = _______ Deduct from 168 = _______ free time
How Much Time Is Enough? • One survey suggested that 2extra hours for every hour spent in scheduled lectures per week was necessary to achieve the best results (Univ. York 2002) • Norton (1990) and Mahalaski (1992) found that students who spent at least 7 hours in total writing an assignment of 2-3,000 words) did significantly better than those who spent less time.
So, how much time should you be spending with your studies? • Each single module = 100 hours worth of work (lectures, assessment, tutorials, reading, group working, etc.) • Semester 2A = 2 modules = 200 hours • Semester 2B = 1 module = 200 hours • 400 hours over 20 weeks = 20 hours / week This is about 12% of your time
1. Prioritisation Worksheet PRIORITY Important Pending
Weekly & Daily Schedule • Importance of allocating available time to priority & Importanttasks; need for a weekly schedule or overview of study tasks • Importance of having clear and reasonable study targets for each day
Looks straightforward … … so what’s the problem ?
Procrastination • A study by O’Brien (2002) suggested that over a third of students feel that procrastination is a problem for them. • Burka and Yuen (1983), suggested that procrastination often emerges as a means of distancing oneself from stressful activities, and that the most difficult tasks are often put to one side mentally until the last possible minute.
Intrinsic/Emotive Extrinsic/External Causal Dimensions of Time Management Problems for Students • Feel overwhelmed & • ‘frozen’ by all the tasks • Anxiety about what is expected • of them • Anxiety about writing: worried about • the quality of their work • Wanting to live up to other people’s • standards • Wanting to live up to their own • image of themselves • Bored – motivation is low • Workload is • heavy & appears • overwhelming • Lack of clarity about what is • expected • Student not experienced in managing • time independently • Cultural dimensions: come • from a society that is relaxed • about time • Course is not interesting
Urgency High Low 1 3 High Crises Planning Importance 2 4 Escapes & Routines Unscheduled Interruptions Low
‘The Placemat’ Today I’m …And I’d like ____ to bring …
Four Tips for Managing Time • Start with the unpleasant tasks first – get them out of the way early. • Set yourself a short time limit for reading: 40 – 45 minutes tends to be the maximum time most people can read before their concentration slips. At the end of the set time, stop and take a break. • Don’t struggle with books you find hard to read. If you find a particular set book hard to follow, try another that offers you a simpler or clearer explanation of the same subject. • Keep your working area clear of clutter: the Wall Street Journal reported that typical US Executive wastes 5 hours a week looking for misfiled/mislaid items. (Lindley 2006).
References Burka, J. B. and L.M. Yuen (1983). Procrastination: Why You Do It and What to Do About It. Reading (USA), Massachussetts: Addison-Wesley. Lindley, D. (2006) Managing Household Paper Flow. From Online Organising.Com. Available athttp://www.onlineorganizing.com/NewslettersArticle.asp?newsletter=go&article=489 [Accessed 12 Oct. 2006]. Mahalaski, P.A. (1992). Essay writing: do study manuals give relevant relevant advice? Higher Education, 24: 113-32. Norton, L.S. (1990). Essay writing: what really counts? Higher Education, 20: 411-42. O'Brien, W.K. (2002). Applying the transtheoretical model to academic procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 62(11-B): 5359. Payne, E. and L. Whittaker (2000). Developing Essential Study Skills. Harlow: Prentice Hall. University of York (Counselling Service) (2002). Time Management. York: as author.