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# Evolution of Numerals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Evolution of Numerals. By Evan Evans. Some ancient numbers. Ancient numbers. Limits of Four. Visual Limits. Humans have a visual distinguish “limit of four”. Different societies came up with ways to deal with this “limit of four”. Egyptian 3 rd Century BC. Cretan 1700-1200BC.

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### Evolution of Numerals

By Evan Evans

• Humans have a visual distinguish “limit of four”.

• Different societies came up with ways to deal with this “limit of four”.

Egyptian 3rd Century BC

The Elema of New Guinea

Here is a figure to show you what some people have used

• Some societies have an additive numeral system: aprinciple of addition

• Each character has a value independent of its position in its representation

• Greek and Roman numeral systems

I 20 XX

2 II 25 XXV

3 III 29 XIX

4 IV (IIII) 50 L

5 V 75 LXXV

6 VI 100 C

10 X 500 D

11 XI 1000 M

16 XVI

Now try these:

XXXVI

36

XL

40

XVII

27

DCCLVI

756

MCMLXIX

1969

Roman Numerals

MMMDCCCI

3801

CCXXXII

232

MMMDCCL

3750

• “Time Writing”

• A sentence or Inscription in which the Capital or Highlighted Letters, interpreted in Roman Numerals, represent a particular date.

“My Day Is Closed In Immortality”

• a chronogram commemorating the death of Queen Elizabeth the first.

M D I C I I

M D C I I I

1000+500+100+1+1+1

1603

Activity

The Babylonians

BabylonIan

=64

= 3604

Through Exploration

Strong Arab Influence

In the West

The Arabic numbers format are based traces with angles:Number one (1) has one angle.Number two (2) has two additives angles.Number three (3) has three additives angles.Number four (4) has four additive angles.The number four get closed due to cursive hand write

The circle is the symbol of the hand closed, which has five fingers.

The number five was written under the write line.

Joe has cows at home

Write Line

The number ten (the 2nd hand) was written (placed) on the top of  write line.

Theoretically, the circle on the top of the write line acquires double value (ten value).

Joe has

Pigs at home

• For each number above 5 you add 1 angle

• Or for a number below 10 you subtract an angle

5 5 + 1 5 + 1 + 1

Write line

5

6

7

The numbers evolved differently in Persia

The numerals from al-Sizji's treatise of 969

In only 120 years the numbers had changed

The numerals from al-Biruni's treatise copied in 1082

• The numerals of 2 and 3 have been rotated 90 degrees

• Scribes copied text in columns from top to bottom onto scrolls

• Scribes unfamiliar with Indian numerals

Arabic-Indic٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩

Eastern Arabic-Indic(Persian and Urdu) ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹

• Is this the end of our number system?

• Are there going to be any more changes in our present numbers?

• In 300 years from now, will the numbers have changed again to be something else?