Chapter 15: Numerals, Genitive of the Whole, Genitive and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals, Ablative of Time. Numerals. The two most common types of numerals are - cardinal (e.g. one, two, three, etc) - ordinal (e.g. first, second, third, etc). Cardinal Numerals.
The two most common types of numerals are
(e.g. one, two, three, etc)
(e.g. first, second, third, etc)
In Latin, all the cardinal numbers through 100 are indeclinable adjectives except for 1, 2, and 3.
Unus, a, um is a special –ius adj we’ve already encountered. (See Ch 9)
Two, duo, is declined as follows. (NB there is no singular, as two is obviously plural)
Three, tres, is declined as follows.
Note that it has an i in the genitive and an i in the neuter nominative and accusative, like 3rd Decl. i-stems.
The numbers for the hundreds from 200-900 are declined like plural 1st/2nd declension adjectives.
ex: ducenti, ae, a
trecenti, ae, a
Mille (1,000) is an indeclinable adjective in the singular.
However, in the plural (i.e. thousands) it is a neuter 3rd declension i-stem noun, milia, and declines as such.
Ordinal numbers indicate sequence (first, second, third, etc).
They are regular 1st/2nd declension adjectives.
Ex: primus, a, um
Words that denote a part of something (e.g. much, more, many, part, enough) can be followed by a dependent genitive, which names the whole of which it is a part.
This genitive is also frequently known as the Partitive Genitive.
Latin frequently uses this genitive after the neuter nominative and accusatives of certain pronouns and adjectives, including
It can also be the neuter singular of a second declension adjective
Milia uses the partitive genitive
(e.g. milia virorum – thousands of men)
With all the other cardinal numbers, the idea of part from whole is expressed by using ex or de and the ablative.
(e.g. duo ex fratribus)
Note the difference between
duo ex fratribus
To express time when or within which, Latin uses the ablative case without a preposition.
In English translation, we usually use a preposition such as on, in, at, or within.
Let’s look at a few examples:
Eodem tempore non valebant.
Paucīs horīs id faciet.
Aestate otium habemus.
Secundo diē in urbem vēnit.
Note that the idea of duration of time
(e.g. I read the book for four hours)
is NOT conveyed by the use of the ablative case!