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Chapter 15: Numerals, Genitive of the Whole, Genitive and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals, Ablative of Time. Numerals. The two most common types of numerals are - cardinal (e.g. one, two, three, etc) - ordinal (e.g. first, second, third, etc). Cardinal Numerals.

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Chapter 15:Numerals, Genitive of the Whole, Genitive and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals, Ablative of Time

numerals
Numerals

The two most common types of numerals are

- cardinal

(e.g. one, two, three, etc)

- ordinal

(e.g. first, second, third, etc)

cardinal numerals
Cardinal Numerals

In Latin, all the cardinal numbers through 100 are indeclinable adjectives except for 1, 2, and 3.

Unus, a, um is a special –ius adj we’ve already encountered. (See Ch 9)

cardinal numerals1
Cardinal Numerals

Two, duo, is declined as follows. (NB there is no singular, as two is obviously plural)

cardinal numerals2
Cardinal Numerals

Three, tres, is declined as follows.

Note that it has an i in the genitive and an i in the neuter nominative and accusative, like 3rd Decl. i-stems.

cardinal numerals3
Cardinal Numerals

The numbers for the hundreds from 200-900 are declined like plural 1st/2nd declension adjectives.

ex: ducenti, ae, a

trecenti, ae, a

cardinal numerals4
Cardinal Numerals

Mille (1,000) is an indeclinable adjective in the singular.

However, in the plural (i.e. thousands) it is a neuter 3rd declension i-stem noun, milia, and declines as such.

ordinal numerals
Ordinal Numerals

Ordinal numbers indicate sequence (first, second, third, etc).

They are regular 1st/2nd declension adjectives.

Ex: primus, a, um

genitive of the whole
Genitive of the Whole

Words that denote a part of something (e.g. much, more, many, part, enough) can be followed by a dependent genitive, which names the whole of which it is a part.

This genitive is also frequently known as the Partitive Genitive.

genitive of the whole1
Genitive of the Whole

Latin frequently uses this genitive after the neuter nominative and accusatives of certain pronouns and adjectives, including

aliquid quid

multum plus

minus satis

nihil tantum

quantum nimis

genitive of the whole2
Genitive of the Whole

It can also be the neuter singular of a second declension adjective

multum boni

quid novi

nihil spei

genitive and ablative with cardinal numerals
Genitive and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals

Milia uses the partitive genitive

(e.g. milia virorum – thousands of men)

With all the other cardinal numbers, the idea of part from whole is expressed by using ex or de and the ablative.

(e.g. duo ex fratribus)

genitive and ablative with cardinal numerals1
Genitive and Ablative with Cardinal Numerals

Note the difference between

duo fratres

duo ex fratribus

mille feminae

milia feminarum

ablative of time when or within which
Ablative of Time When or Within Which

To express time when or within which, Latin uses the ablative case without a preposition.

In English translation, we usually use a preposition such as on, in, at, or within.

ablative of time when or within which1
Ablative of Time When or Within Which

Let’s look at a few examples:

Eodem tempore non valebant.

Paucīs horīs id faciet.

Aestate otium habemus.

Secundo diē in urbem vēnit.

ablative of time when or within which2
Ablative of Time When or Within Which

Note that the idea of duration of time

(e.g. I read the book for four hours)

is NOT conveyed by the use of the ablative case!