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DAY 1 AGENDA • Registration (15mins) • Intro with video (15mins) • Course overview and objectives (10mins) • Resources (freebies & sources) (10mins) • Section 1 • Build better paperclip (10-15mins) • Coffee break (15mins) • The design process (10mins) • Potato peeler (SCAMPER) (15mins) • Feedback questions (10mins) • Intro to day 2 (10mins)
What is ‘Design and Discovery’ Project based learning for 15 year olds • Pre-engineering modular course for TY students • Introduction to the designed world • Engineering fundamentals • Use of design processes • Linkage to JC and LC science and physics
Background • Designed in the US for summer camps ‘02 • Curriculum localised for TY in Ireland ‘03 • Pre-pilot carried out in 2 schools Jan ‘04 • Evaluation conducted by Dr. Mathews, TCD • Expansion of pilot to 50 schools Sept. ’04 • Evaluation of expanded pilot 2005 • National proliferation through TYCSS Sept. ‘05
Why Design and Discovery? • Helps students understand how much of the real world is created. • Helps students look critically at the designed world and tap into their own capacity to create change. • Helps students develop their understanding of important scientific concepts. • Strengthen skills in problem solving, creativity, risk taking and decision making . “I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.” - Albert Einstein
Transition Year Aims • Education for maturity with the emphasis on personal development including social awareness and increased social competence. • The promotion of general, technical and academic skills with an emphasis on interdisciplinary and self-directed learning. • Education through experience of adult and working life as a basis for personal development and maturity.
Training Goals • Become familiar with Design and Discovery curriculum, and resources • Experience the curriculum activities with hands-on learning Be fully prepared to implement in your school and know what your next steps are for success • Develop and share strategies for implementation. Use the people resources you have while here – each other and your trainers. Web resource.
Design and Discovery Video • PLAY(click to play video)
Training Format • Walk through the curriculum • Hands-on • 2 hats • Powerpoint / Binders Inquiry based teaching "Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.“ – Anon. “I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.” - Albert Einstein
Engineering Fundamentals Thinking Creatively about Problems and Solutions Making, Modeling, And Materializing Understanding the Design Process Prototyping and Final Presentations 8 9 2 3 11 13 4 5 6 7 1 10 1 Jump into The Designed World Each SESSION includes ACTIVITIES Activity A Build Better Paper Clip Activity B The Design Process Activity CThe Potato Peeler Home Work Student Instructions Further Reading Student Instructions Further Reading Student Instructions Further Reading Further Reading Curriculum Structure SIX SECTIONS… 12 …with 13 Sessions (13 x 3 periods) Student Booklet
Curriculum Structure Section 1: Understanding the Design Process • Jump Into The Designed World Section 2: Engineering Fundamentals • Material Science • Electronic Engineering I • Electronic Engineering II • Making Machines and Observing Functionality Section 3: Thinking Creatively about Problems and Soluions • 3 R’s of Problem Identification • A Solution Taking Shape Section 4: Making, Modelling and Materializing • Understanding Systems and Design Requirements • Planning for Models and Tests • Making It!, Models, Trials and Tests Section 5: Prototyping • Prototype Practicalities • Develop It and Test It! Section 6: Final Presentations • Final Presentation
Resources • Film Canisters • Any photo developing shop • Crankshaft • Clothes Hanger wire works well • A good idea to allow students to make a box, if using milk cartons as video suggests.. Can be very sloppy.. Sour milk etc • Electronics • Supplied by Intel • LegoBuggy • Supplied by Intel • Robotics • Supplied by Intel • Miscellaneous Equipment • Other equipment e.g. pliers, paperclips, scissors etc can be sourced locally
The Design Process • Identify a design opportunity • Research the design opportunity • Brainstorm possible solutions to the problem • Define the problem • Research your solution • Refine your solution • Prepare design requirements and conceptual drawings • Build models and component parts • Build a solution prototype • Improve your solution. Test, evaluate and revise.
Curriculum Sessions • 120 minutes in duration (3 x 40min classes) • 2 to 4 hands-on Activities. • Key concepts discussed • Teacher manual contains all the information needed to deliver each activity. • Student booklets contain instructions for each activity and also some further reading. • Teacher manual also contains all the student instructions and student further reading material. • Each Activity lists all needed supplies • Activities may be supplemented with additional readings and Home Work opportunities
Curriculum Activities • Format • Goal • Outcome • Description • Supplies • Preparation • Procedure
Teachers Website • Teacher Guide • Key Concepts and further information for teachers • Engineering as a Career • Engineering Profiles • Irish Engineering Projects • Student Booklet (Worksheets and Readings) • Workshop presentation • Share ideas • Discuss issues • Demonstration videos • Student Examples • Mentors
Section 1Understanding the Design Process Practice seeing the world from a designed perspective and learn how to guide students through the design process. The 10-step Design Process is introduced here and revisited throughout the curriculum.
Session 1: Jump Into the Designed World In This Session:- • Build a Better Paper Clip (40mins) • The Design Process (20mins) • Potato Peeler Upgrades (20mins) • SCAMPER and the Potato Masher (35mins) • Design Opportunities and Everywhere (5mins and H/W)
1A. Build a Better Paper Clip Goal:- Experience the design process by re-engineering and everyday object. Outcome:- Design and engineer a new paper clip that meets specified requirements Description:- After careful observations of how different kinds of paperclips function and perform, students design a new paperclip that meets several requirements including a unique look. They construct them using a selection of materials and prepare drawings of the various designs. Each designer presents out on their model.
Design Challenge The owners of P&C Office Supplies are seeking new designs for paper clips. The company has come across hard times and believes a new paper clip design could revive their once thriving business. It is up to you to save their company. Use you imagination and creativity to invent a new paper clip design, the owners have come up with requirements for the design. Requirements • Your paper clip will be unique. It cannot look like any paper clip you have seen before, but it may have features of other clips. • It can be no bigger than 2 inches • It must hold 10 pieces of paper together • Your main material must be wire • It must not be a hazzard to small children. • You should use your design notebook to draw your various designs • Draw sketches of your ideas. • You must name your design. • Be prepared to present your design. Time allowed : 10mins Debrief : 15 mins
1B. The Design Process Goal:- Become familiar with the design process. Outcome:- The experience with designing paperclips is formalises into a design process that guides students through their design and engineering projects. Description:- A group discussion of the paper clip activity collects the students experiences with the design process they experienced directly. This discussion moves to connecting their experience to a general design process (outlined on 1B handout: The Design Process). A short reading that clarifies the relationship between design, engineering, and scientific research wraps up the activity.
Introducing The Design Process • Identify a Design Opportunity/Problem to Solve. • Research the Design Opportunity. • Brainstorm Possible Solutions to the Problem. • Define the problem. • Research your solution. • Refine your solution. • Prepare design requirements and conceptual drawings. • Build models and component parts. • Build a solution prototype. • Improve your solution. Test, evaluate, and revise.
1C. Potato Peeler Upgrade Goal:- Introduce and practice SCAMPER, a creative technique for improving existing designs. Outcome:- Learn and practice the SCAMPER process. Description:- Students learn about and use SCAMPER, a systematic technique for generating ideas about improving existing designs. They study a potato peeler and try to create ideas about designing an improved peeler.
SCAMPER (Session 1, Activity C and D) • Substitute • Combine • Adapt • Magnify / Minimize • Put to other uses • Eliminate / Elaborate • Rearrange / Reverse.
1D. SCAMPER and the Potato Masher Goal:- Apply the SCAMPER technique to components of a potato masher. Outcome:- Improve the 3 main components of a standard potato masher using SCAMPER. Description:- Students look at the different components of a potato masher and apply the scamper technique to each of them. They are introduced to technical drawing by enhancing an existing drawing with their improvements.
1E. Design Opportunities and Everywhere Goal:- Learn to identify problems, needs and opportunities for design improvements. Outcome:- Students generate a list of 10 problems that they see as opportunities for design solutions. Description:- This activity begins the students’ project development. Another brainstorming technique called ‘Activity Mapping’ is introduced where students identify an activity, the steps in this activity and where there could be room for improvement. Following this a walking tour is a good way to give students ideas for design opportunities.
Activity Mapping(Session 1, Activity E) • Pre-Activity: Describes what is done before the activity • Activity: Explains what is involved in the activity • Post-Activity: Included what is involved after the activity • Assessment: Involves how one knows if the activity has been successful.
Cleaning Your Teeth • Pre-Activity: Preparation • Activity: Brushing your teeth • Post-Activity: Cleaning up • Assessment: Questions for students • What products are involved in each process • Consider any problems with products / potential improvements / new products • What could make life easier for people
Day 2Section 2Engineering Fudamentals Agenda: • Registration (5mins) • Introduction/Overview (5mins) • Material Science -Test the properties of various materials(20mins) • Feedback/questions(10mins) • Material applications -Break into groups and select one or two problems from material applications, brainstorm ideas, draw rough diagrams(10mins) • Material Choice • Discuss (5mins) • Coffee break (15mins)
Day 2Section 2Engineering Fudamentals Agenda: • Electronics 1 & 2 • Overview (10mins) • Activities: Using diagrams from workbooks (15mins) Activity A: Building Simple Circuits Activity B: Using Simple Switches Activity C: Using a Silicon Chip Activity D: Completing the input pattern for the 4093 • Feedback/Questions (5mins) • Activity 2: Using Diagrams from workbooks(15mins) Activity A: A Reed Switch Circuit. Activity B: Making an LED flash. Activity C: Controlling a Motor.
Day 2Section 2Engineering Fundamentals Making Machines and Observing Functionality • Overview (5mins) • Build crankshaft or Rolling toy (15mins) • Feedback/Questions(10mins) • Preview of Day 3(5mins)
Section 2Engineering Fundamentals Goal: Understand the basic principles of materials, electrical, and mechanical engineering, which may be incorporated into students’ projects. Practice testing material properties, wiring circuits, and making a mechanical devices. Session 2: Material Science Session 3: Electronic Engineering I Session 4: Electronic Engineering II Session 5: Mechanics
Session 2Materials Science Activity A: Properties of materials Activity B: Material application Activity C: Material choice
Session 2 Materials • A Properties of materials • B Material applications • C Material choice
A. Properties of materials • Four material categories: • 1.Metals: Steel,Aluminium,Iron • 2.Ceramics:Porcelain,Glass,Tiles • 3.Polymers:Plastic,Rubber,Adhesives • 4.Composites:Fibreglass,Plywood,Concrete
Material Properties • 1.Density • 2.Ductility • 3.Strength • 4.Fatigue • 5.Electrical conductivity • 6.Thermal conductivity • 7.Optical properties
Material test 1 : Density • Q. What materials are most dense? • Materials: Brick,Wood,Styrofoam • Rate the materials :High,medium,low • Examples: High density; Paperweight,Construction Low density; Backpack,Tennis racket
Test 2 :Ductility v’s Brittleness • Q. How easily does it stretch when a force is applied? • Chocolate bar test: • Frozen caramel bar: Brittle(breaks immediately) • Caramel bar: Ductile(stretchs before breaking)
Activity 2 Ductility • Materials: wooden stick, plastic spoon, metal spoon, tile • Test: Bend all and rate them from the most to the least ductile
Result : Activity 2 Ductility • Plastic,wood,metal Examples: Bridges, furniture: must allow for some bending. Rubberbands,plastic bags: must allow for lots of bending Foor tiles,bookshelves: cannot allow for any bending
Test 3 Strength(tensile) • Q.How much weight can it hold without failing or breaking? • Materials: Newton masses, paper,aluminium foil, plastic bags • Test: Attach masses to materials until material breaks
Result : Activity 3 Strength Plastic(strongest),aluminium,Paper (weakest) Examples: Strong materials are needed in construction such as concrete and steel
Test 4 Fatigue • Q. How much repeated stress cause material to break or fail? • Materials: plastic ties,paper clips,thin plywood. • Test: Bend all , counting times it takes to break. • Rate from most to least fatigue resistent
Result : Activity 4 Fatigue Plywood(most resistent),steel,plastic(least resistent) Examples: Fatigue is most important when materials are used repeatedly eg. paper clips, bridges.Fatigue is not an issue for disposable objects such as paper plates
Test 5 Electrical conductivity • Q. Does electricity pass easily through material? • Materials:Battery,wire,bulb,aluminium foil,cardboard,plastic,ceramic tiles • Test: Make an electrical circuit with each material to see if bulb lights
Result: Activity 5 Electrical conductivity Aluminium(conductor) Cardboard,plastic,ceramic (insulators) Examples: Insulators are important around electrically conductive wires
Test 6 Thermal conductivity • Q.Does heat pass through material easily? • Materials:Candle,matchs,aluminium cardboard,plastic,ceramic tiles Test:Hold candle in flame a few inches from material for 10 seconds and note how hot it becomes and how hot it remains
Results : Activity 6 Thermal conductivity • High thermal conductivity : object feels hot and stays hot. • Aluminium(high),ceramic(medium), • paper(medium),plastic(low) • Examples: • Baking sheets,radiators(conductors) • Polystyrene cups(insulators)