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DAY 1 AGENDA. Registration (15mins) Intro with video (15mins) Course overview and objectives (10mins) Resources (freebies & sources) (10mins) Section 1 Build better paperclip (10-15mins) Coffee break (15mins) The design process (10mins) Potato peeler (SCAMPER) (15mins)

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day 1 agenda
  • Registration (15mins)
  • Intro with video (15mins)
  • Course overview and objectives (10mins)
  • Resources (freebies & sources) (10mins)
  • Section 1
    • Build better paperclip (10-15mins)
    • Coffee break (15mins)
    • The design process (10mins)
    • Potato peeler (SCAMPER) (15mins)
    • Feedback questions (10mins)
    • Intro to day 2 (10mins)
what is design and discovery
What is ‘Design and Discovery’

Project based learning for 15 year olds

  • Pre-engineering modular course for TY students
  • Introduction to the designed world
  • Engineering fundamentals
  • Use of design processes
  • Linkage to JC and LC science and physics
  • Designed in the US for summer camps ‘02
  • Curriculum localised for TY in Ireland ‘03
  • Pre-pilot carried out in 2 schools Jan ‘04
  • Evaluation conducted by Dr. Mathews, TCD
  • Expansion of pilot to 50 schools Sept. ’04
  • Evaluation of expanded pilot 2005
  • National proliferation through TYCSS

Sept. ‘05

why design and discovery
Why Design and Discovery?
  • Helps students understand how much of the real world is created.
  • Helps students look critically at the designed world and tap into their own capacity to create change.
  • Helps students develop their understanding of important scientific concepts.
  • Strengthen skills in problem solving, creativity, risk taking and decision making .

“I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.” - Albert Einstein

transition year aims
Transition Year Aims
  • Education for maturity with the emphasis on personal development including social awareness and increased social competence.
  • The promotion of general, technical and academic skills with an emphasis on interdisciplinary and self-directed learning.
  • Education through experience of adult and working life as a basis for personal development and maturity.
training goals
Training Goals
  • Become familiar with Design and Discovery curriculum, and resources
  • Experience the curriculum activities with hands-on learning Be fully prepared to implement in your school and know what your next steps are for success
  • Develop and share strategies for implementation. Use the people resources you have while here – each other and your trainers. Web resource.
design and discovery video
Design and Discovery Video
  • PLAY(click to play video)
training format
Training Format
  • Walk through the curriculum
  • Hands-on
  • 2 hats
  • Powerpoint / Binders

Inquiry based teaching

"Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.“ – Anon.

“I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.” - Albert Einstein




Creatively about

Problems and Solutions

Making, Modeling,

And Materializing

Understanding the

Design Process

Prototyping and Final















Jump into

The Designed World


Activity A

Build Better Paper Clip

Activity B

The Design Process

Activity CThe Potato Peeler

















Curriculum Structure



…with 13 Sessions

(13 x 3 periods)

Student Booklet

curriculum structure
Curriculum Structure

Section 1: Understanding the Design Process

  • Jump Into The Designed World

Section 2: Engineering Fundamentals

  • Material Science
  • Electronic Engineering I
  • Electronic Engineering II
  • Making Machines and Observing Functionality

Section 3: Thinking Creatively about Problems and Soluions

  • 3 R’s of Problem Identification
  • A Solution Taking Shape

Section 4: Making, Modelling and Materializing

  • Understanding Systems and Design Requirements
  • Planning for Models and Tests
  • Making It!, Models, Trials and Tests

Section 5: Prototyping

  • Prototype Practicalities
  • Develop It and Test It!

Section 6: Final Presentations

  • Final Presentation
  • Film Canisters
    • Any photo developing shop
  • Crankshaft
    • Clothes Hanger wire works well
    • A good idea to allow students to make a box, if using milk cartons as video suggests.. Can be very sloppy.. Sour milk etc
  • Electronics
    • Supplied by Intel
  • LegoBuggy
    • Supplied by Intel
  • Robotics
    • Supplied by Intel
  • Miscellaneous Equipment
    • Other equipment e.g. pliers, paperclips, scissors etc can be sourced locally
the design process
The Design Process
  • Identify a design opportunity
  • Research the design opportunity
  • Brainstorm possible solutions to the problem
  • Define the problem
  • Research your solution
  • Refine your solution
  • Prepare design requirements and conceptual drawings
  • Build models and component parts
  • Build a solution prototype
  • Improve your solution. Test, evaluate and revise.
curriculum sessions
Curriculum Sessions
  • 120 minutes in duration (3 x 40min classes)
  • 2 to 4 hands-on Activities.
  • Key concepts discussed
  • Teacher manual contains all the information needed to deliver each activity.
  • Student booklets contain instructions for each activity and also some further reading.
  • Teacher manual also contains all the student instructions and student further reading material.
  • Each Activity lists all needed supplies
  • Activities may be supplemented with additional readings and Home Work opportunities
curriculum activities
Curriculum Activities
  • Format
    • Goal
    • Outcome
    • Description
    • Supplies
    • Preparation
    • Procedure
teachers website
Teachers Website
  • Teacher Guide
    • Key Concepts and further information for teachers
    • Engineering as a Career
    • Engineering Profiles
    • Irish Engineering Projects
  • Student Booklet (Worksheets and Readings)
  • Workshop presentation
  • Share ideas
  • Discuss issues
  • Demonstration videos
  • Student Examples
  • Mentors
section 1 understanding the design process
Section 1Understanding the Design Process

Practice seeing the world from a designed perspective and learn how to guide students through the design process. The 10-step Design Process is introduced here and revisited throughout the curriculum.

session 1 jump into the designed world
Session 1: Jump Into the Designed World

In This Session:-

  • Build a Better Paper Clip (40mins)
  • The Design Process (20mins)
  • Potato Peeler Upgrades (20mins)
  • SCAMPER and the Potato Masher (35mins)
  • Design Opportunities and Everywhere (5mins and H/W)
1a build a better paper clip
1A. Build a Better Paper Clip


Experience the design process by re-engineering and everyday object.


Design and engineer a new paper clip that meets specified requirements


After careful observations of how different kinds of paperclips function and perform, students design a new paperclip that meets several requirements including a unique look. They construct them using a selection of materials and prepare drawings of the various designs. Each designer presents out on their model.

design challenge
Design Challenge

The owners of P&C Office Supplies are seeking new designs for paper clips. The company has come across hard times and believes a new paper clip design could revive their once thriving business. It is up to you to save their company. Use you imagination and creativity to invent a new paper clip design, the owners have come up with requirements for the design.


    • Your paper clip will be unique. It cannot look like any paper clip you have seen before, but it may have features of other clips.
    • It can be no bigger than 2 inches
    • It must hold 10 pieces of paper together
    • Your main material must be wire
    • It must not be a hazzard to small children.
    • You should use your design notebook to draw your various designs
  • Draw sketches of your ideas.
  • You must name your design.
  • Be prepared to present your design.

Time allowed : 10mins

Debrief : 15 mins

1b the design process
1B. The Design Process


Become familiar with the design process.


The experience with designing paperclips is formalises into a design process that guides students through their design and engineering projects.


A group discussion of the paper clip activity collects the students experiences with the design process they experienced directly. This discussion moves to connecting their experience to a general design process (outlined on 1B handout: The Design Process). A short reading that clarifies the relationship between design, engineering, and scientific research wraps up the activity.

introducing the design process
Introducing The Design Process
  • Identify a Design Opportunity/Problem to Solve.
  • Research the Design Opportunity.
  • Brainstorm Possible Solutions to the Problem.
  • Define the problem.
  • Research your solution.
  • Refine your solution.
  • Prepare design requirements and conceptual drawings.
  • Build models and component parts.
  • Build a solution prototype.
  • Improve your solution. Test, evaluate, and revise.
1c potato peeler upgrade
1C. Potato Peeler Upgrade


Introduce and practice SCAMPER, a creative technique for improving existing designs.


Learn and practice the SCAMPER process.


Students learn about and use SCAMPER, a systematic technique for generating ideas about improving existing designs. They study a potato peeler and try to create ideas about designing an improved peeler.

scamper session 1 activity c and d
SCAMPER (Session 1, Activity C and D)
  • Substitute
  • Combine
  • Adapt
  • Magnify / Minimize
  • Put to other uses
  • Eliminate / Elaborate
  • Rearrange / Reverse.
1d scamper and the potato masher
1D. SCAMPER and the Potato Masher


Apply the SCAMPER technique to components of a potato masher.


Improve the 3 main components of a standard potato masher using SCAMPER.


Students look at the different components of a potato masher and apply the scamper technique to each of them. They are introduced to technical drawing by enhancing an existing drawing with their improvements.

1e design opportunities and everywhere
1E. Design Opportunities and Everywhere


Learn to identify problems, needs and opportunities for design improvements.


Students generate a list of 10 problems that they see as opportunities for design solutions.


This activity begins the students’ project development. Another brainstorming technique called ‘Activity Mapping’ is introduced where students identify an activity, the steps in this activity and where there could be room for improvement. Following this a walking tour is a good way to give students ideas for design opportunities.

activity mapping session 1 activity e
Activity Mapping(Session 1, Activity E)
  • Pre-Activity: Describes what is done before the activity
  • Activity: Explains what is involved in the activity
  • Post-Activity: Included what is involved after the activity
  • Assessment: Involves how one knows if the activity has been successful.
cleaning your teeth
Cleaning Your Teeth
  • Pre-Activity: Preparation
  • Activity: Brushing your teeth
  • Post-Activity: Cleaning up
  • Assessment:

Questions for students

  • What products are involved in each process
  • Consider any problems with products / potential improvements / new products
  • What could make life easier for people
day 2 section 2 engineering fudamentals
Day 2Section 2Engineering Fudamentals


  • Registration (5mins)
  • Introduction/Overview (5mins)
  • Material Science

-Test the properties of various materials(20mins)

  • Feedback/questions(10mins)
  • Material applications

-Break into groups and select one or two problems from material applications, brainstorm ideas, draw rough diagrams(10mins)

  • Material Choice
    • Discuss (5mins)
  • Coffee break (15mins)
day 2 section 2 engineering fudamentals1
Day 2Section 2Engineering Fudamentals


  • Electronics 1 & 2
  • Overview (10mins)
  • Activities: Using diagrams from workbooks (15mins)

Activity A: Building Simple Circuits

Activity B: Using Simple Switches

Activity C: Using a Silicon Chip

Activity D: Completing the input pattern for the 4093

  • Feedback/Questions (5mins)
  • Activity 2: Using Diagrams from workbooks(15mins)

Activity A: A Reed Switch Circuit.

Activity B: Making an LED flash.

Activity C: Controlling a Motor.

day 2 section 2 engineering fundamentals
Day 2Section 2Engineering Fundamentals

Making Machines and Observing Functionality

  • Overview (5mins)
  • Build crankshaft or Rolling toy (15mins)
  • Feedback/Questions(10mins)
  • Preview of Day 3(5mins)
section 2 engineering fundamentals
Section 2Engineering Fundamentals

Goal: Understand the basic principles of materials, electrical, and mechanical engineering, which may be incorporated into students’ projects. Practice testing material properties, wiring circuits, and making a mechanical devices.

Session 2: Material Science

Session 3: Electronic Engineering I

Session 4: Electronic Engineering II

Session 5: Mechanics

session 2 materials science
Session 2Materials Science

Activity A: Properties of materials

Activity B: Material application

Activity C: Material choice

session 2 materials
Session 2 Materials
  • A Properties of materials
  • B Material applications
  • C Material choice
a properties of materials
A. Properties of materials
  • Four material categories:
  • 1.Metals: Steel,Aluminium,Iron
  • 2.Ceramics:Porcelain,Glass,Tiles
  • 3.Polymers:Plastic,Rubber,Adhesives
  • 4.Composites:Fibreglass,Plywood,Concrete
material properties
Material Properties
  • 1.Density
  • 2.Ductility
  • 3.Strength
  • 4.Fatigue
  • 5.Electrical conductivity
  • 6.Thermal conductivity
  • 7.Optical properties
material test 1 density
Material test 1 : Density
  • Q. What materials are most dense?
  • Materials: Brick,Wood,Styrofoam
  • Rate the materials :High,medium,low
  • Examples:

High density; Paperweight,Construction

Low density; Backpack,Tennis racket

test 2 ductility v s brittleness
Test 2 :Ductility v’s Brittleness
  • Q. How easily does it stretch when a force is applied?
  • Chocolate bar test:
  • Frozen caramel bar: Brittle(breaks immediately)
  • Caramel bar: Ductile(stretchs before breaking)
activity 2 ductility
Activity 2 Ductility
  • Materials: wooden stick, plastic spoon, metal spoon, tile
  • Test: Bend all and rate them from the most to the least ductile
result activity 2 ductility
Result : Activity 2 Ductility
  • Plastic,wood,metal


Bridges, furniture: must allow for some bending.

Rubberbands,plastic bags: must allow for lots of bending

Foor tiles,bookshelves: cannot allow for any bending

test 3 strength tensile
Test 3 Strength(tensile)
  • Q.How much weight can it hold without failing or breaking?
  • Materials: Newton masses,

paper,aluminium foil, plastic bags

  • Test: Attach masses to materials until material breaks
result activity 3 strength
Result : Activity 3 Strength




Strong materials are needed in construction such as concrete and steel

test 4 fatigue
Test 4 Fatigue
  • Q. How much repeated stress cause material to break or fail?
  • Materials: plastic ties,paper clips,thin plywood.
  • Test: Bend all , counting times it takes to break.
  • Rate from most to least fatigue resistent
result activity 4 fatigue
Result : Activity 4 Fatigue

Plywood(most resistent),steel,plastic(least resistent)


Fatigue is most important when materials are used repeatedly eg. paper clips, bridges.Fatigue is not an issue for disposable objects such as paper plates

test 5 electrical conductivity
Test 5 Electrical conductivity
  • Q. Does electricity pass easily through material?
  • Materials:Battery,wire,bulb,aluminium foil,cardboard,plastic,ceramic tiles
  • Test: Make an electrical circuit with each material to see if bulb lights
result activity 5 electrical conductivity
Result: Activity 5 Electrical conductivity


Cardboard,plastic,ceramic (insulators)


Insulators are important around electrically conductive wires

test 6 thermal conductivity
Test 6 Thermal conductivity
  • Q.Does heat pass through material easily?
  • Materials:Candle,matchs,aluminium

cardboard,plastic,ceramic tiles

Test:Hold candle in flame a few inches from material for 10 seconds and note how hot it becomes and how hot it remains

results activity 6 thermal conductivity
Results : Activity 6 Thermal conductivity
  • High thermal conductivity : object feels hot and stays hot.
  • Aluminium(high),ceramic(medium),
  • paper(medium),plastic(low)
  • Examples:
  • Baking sheets,radiators(conductors)
  • Polystyrene cups(insulators)
test 7 optical properties
Test 7 Optical properties
  • Q.How easily does light pass through the material?
  • Materials:Torch,plastic bag,plastic cup, plastic bucket
  • Test:Compare materials by shining light through them
results activity 7 thermal conductivity
Results : Activity 7 Thermal conductivity

Plasctic bag(transparent)

plastic cup(translucent)

plastic bucket (opaque)


Transparent (windshields,glasses)

Translucent (bathroom window)

Opaque (curtains)

b material applications
B Material applications
  • Students are given specific problems to solve and ask themselves questions such as:
  • Which properties are important?
  • Which materials have these important properties?
  • What materials would you use?
  • Spoon to mix hot soup ingredients
  • Lightweight golfclub
  • Clothesline
  • Phonebooth with facilities for lap-top use
c material choice
C. Material choice
  • Economic and environmental factors are involved when choosing material
  • Students have to choose a material to package a new fruit juice
activity 1 students figure out the overall cost of one container
Activity 1 Students figure out the overall cost of one container

Plastic is the cheapest and aluminium is the most expensive

activity ii students figure out which is cheaper raw or recycled material
Activity IIStudents figure out which is cheaper,raw or recycled material

It is cheaper to recycle aluminium and glass and cheaper to buy plastic

activity iii environmental cost
Activity IIIEnvironmental cost

It is better to recycle aluminium for the environment

session 3
Session 3

Activity A: Building Simple Circuits

Activity B: Using Simple Switches

Activity C: Using a Silicon Chip

Activity D: Completing the input pattern for the 4093

session 4
Session 4

Activity A: A Reed Switch Circuit.

Activity B: Making an LED flash.

Activity C: Controlling a Motor.


Session 5: Making Machines
  • Understanding the session: Exploration of the mechanics of simple machines, this is achieved through a practical based lesson where the student will build different types of “toys” using basic mechanics.
  • The session is broken down into 3 manageable sections
  • Section A:Design, Build, & Make it go
  • Section B: Gears, Cranks, crankshafts and belts
  • Section C: Using Motors to produce motion
Activity 5A: Rolling Kit
  • Goal: To allow students to become more familiar with the ideas behind basic mechanics, how energy can be stored, transferred and transformed.
  • Outcome: Make a “Rolling toy which can travel 1-1.5 metres as an introduction to mechanical engineering.
  • Preparation: To do this you will need “One Rolling Kit” per student
  • Materials required:
  • 1 film canister with lid, with holes(8mm – 10mm Ø) drilled in both ends (this is the part where your “nice” to the technology teachers and ask to borrow a cordless drill)
  • 2 Rubber bands 6.5cm
  • 2 small washers
  • 1 piece of thick drinking straw (try Macdonalds or Burger King)
  • (note: The film canisters can usually be obtained from any photo processing agent, just ask they have loads (and they don’t want them)
Building The “Rolling Kit”


Sometimes a picture speaks a thousand words.. That’s exactly what this video clip is going to do!!


Note: If you can’t

get the film


empty cans of coke

Fanta etc

work just as well

Now for the good news..

Its YOUR turn to make

the Rolling Kit!

Activity 5B: Gears, Cranks, Crankshafts & Belts

Goal: Familiarise students with mechanical engineering concepts so that they can try to apply them in various projects or designs. Encourage students to find out where they can get more information on mechanisms and mechanical devices, e.g. web sites, this would also be an ideal time for you (the teacher) to invite a “guest speaker” to talk to the class

Outcome: to design & build a “crankshaft” which could then be transformed into a small toy.

  • You will need:
  • A small milk carton
  • 3 pieces of 16-gauge steel wire
  • - one 20cm long
  • - two 7cm long
  • 1 straw (again try MacDonald's, etc)
  • Some insulating tape for crank handle
  • Several pairs of needle nose pliers
Guess what?..

Its Your Turn to have a go making the CRANKSHAFT

Just try to remember the basic shape you’re trying to make and it becomes much simpler

Summary to Section 5 activities

A The Rolling Kit

B The Crankshaft

By completing this session students should be able to incorporate some of the concepts they have learned into the final projects they decide to build at the end of the module

All of the information needed to complete these practical tasks can be found in your handbook, all of the video’s used can be found on the Design & Discovery Website.

section 3 thinking creatively about problems and solutions
Section 3Thinking Creatively about Problems and Solutions

Session 6: The 3 R’s of Problem IdentificationSession 7: A Solution Taking Shape

the 3 r s of problem identification

The 3 R’s of Problem Identification

Lesson 1 - 6A Revisit

- 6B Research & Refine

- 6C SCAMPER to solutions (h/w)

Lesson 2 - 6D Sample Design Brief

Lesson 3 – 6E My Design Brief

6a revisit
6A Revisit
  • Revisit their broad list of problems, needs, improvement ideas in Session 1
  • May need to expand this list
  • Ask some questions to refine it
  • eg, What about this product is frustrating?
  • Choose top 3 design opportunities
6b research refine
6B Research & Refine
  • Prepare the survey questions
  • Survey 10 people
  • List pros and cons in choosing one design opportunity
  • Formulate a Problem Statement
6c scamper to solutions h w
6C SCAMPER to solutions (h/w)
  • Using the SCAMPER process, students develop a list possible solutions to their problem/improvement
  • Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Minimize/Magnify, Put to other uses, Eliminate/Elaborate, Reverse/Rearrange.
  • Evaluate ideas using a set of criteria
6d sample design brief
6D Sample Design Brief
  • Design Brief - What is it?
  • - What it does?
  • Students read ‘Sample Design Brief’
  • Review – Describe the problem

- describe how the current product is used? etc

6e my design brief
6E My Design Brief
  • Students work on their own design brief (final draft and sketches eventually)
  • Perhaps a 2min presentation
  • - state the problem
  • - describe the needs of the user
  • - describe the solution
session 7 a solution taking shape louise ward
Session 7A Solution Taking ShapeLouise Ward

Improve, Refine, Define

Online research

a the user
A: The User
  • Hammer,Potatomasher,Jack in the box
  • Who uses it?
  • Gender?
  • Age?
  • Why do they use it?
  • What will they do to operate it?
  • Students consider their own products and who uses them.
b patents
B: Patents
  • Students explore patent websites
  • There are a variety of engineering solutions, materials, and design ideas for the same problem
how stuff works
How stuff works
  • Think -- Thing
c invitation to invent
C: Invitation to invent
  • Students explore invention websites for inspiration and ideas for their own project
Session 8: Understanding Systems and Design RequirementsSession 9: Planning for Models and TestsSession 10: Making IT, Models, Trials and Tests

Section 4

Making, Modeling, and Materializing

Martin Gleeson

section 4 making modeling and materializing
Section 4Making, Modeling, and Materializing
  • Introduction/Overview (10mins)
  • Systems & Synergy(20mins)
  • Understand the connections between systems components and parts
  • Activity

-Use a bicycle to analyse how systems and components work in symbiosis. Use teacher handbook pg 202

  • Feedback/questions(5mins)
  • The Perfect Fit(20mins)
  • Activity:

-Fine tune a project design by taking a look at the needs of the user. Take a look at the new and improved models of existing designs. Investigate what/why improvements have been made. Gillette safety razor is good example, but any new and improved object will suffice.

  • Conceptual Drawing (10mins)

-See pages 215-220 in teachers handbook

  • Coffee Break (15mins)
section 4 making modeling and materializing1
Section 4Making, Modeling, and Materializing
  • Checking the design process (15mins)
  • Use checklist in handbook pg 222-223. Students will refine initial designs
  • Planning for models and tests
  • Activity(25mins)

-Review “the design process” and discuss supplies needed to build a prototype

  • Materials and Modelling (25mins)
  • Activity

-Discuss the difference between a model and a prototype.

Structural/material considerations: Discuss what materials you will need to build model of your project. See handbook pg237-240

-Build a small scale model of your final design and evaluate using checklist pg 247 of handbook

  • Feedback/questions (5mins)
session 11 prototype practicalities session 12 develop it and test it session 13 final presentation
Session 11: Prototype PracticalitiesSession 12: Develop IT and Test ItSession 13: Final Presentation

Section 5 and 6

Prototyping and Final Presentations

Audrey Byrne

section 5 and 6
Section 5 and 6

Prototyping and Final Presentations

  • Introduction (10mins)
  • Prototype planning (15mins)
  • Revisit/review your model from previous sessions. Using this as a guide, build your prototype(25mins)
  • Evaluate the prototype. (10mins)

-Use questions on pg 269-270 in handbook.

  • Coffee Break (15mins)
  • Present your prototype to other groups.(20mins)

-List some positive and some negative aspects of your design e.g. materials inexpensive and readily available, but may not be cost effective etc.

  • Final presentation
  • Discuss possible options/venues for students to showcase the work they have done (10mins)
  • Feedback/Questions(5mins)
  • Overall evaluation of course(10mins)
Session 11 : Prototype Practicalities
  • Goal: Refine a project into a working
  • prototype.
    • Session 11:Prototype Practicalities
    • Session 12:Develop It & Test It!
    • Session 13:Final Presentations
Activity 11A: Build a Prototype

Goal: What is a prototype? What is the point of building one? Understand what a prototype teaches.

Mentors may be involved at this stage. Prototypes are still part of the experimental stage, but provide opportunities for testing critical aspects of an idea.

Choose a realistic & achievable project
  • At this stage it is important to remind the students that they will have to actually design and build their idea
  • Many students may come up with “fantastic ideas” e.g.
  • To design self ironing clothes,
  • To design a robot to make their bed.
  • But do they really have the skills or equipment available to this this?
11A: Prototype planning
  • As a general rule, it is recommended that three basic concepts be followed:
  • investigation to see whether the right approach is being taken;
  • refinement to build on the comments and feedback after the investigative prototype;
  • consolidation to fully satisfy the objectives of the prototype
Not meant to fully function, only to show what it would look like – materials are not final
Basic Concept
  • We are going to build a prototype of a “thing” to meet specifications.
  • What are the requirements of a “thing” that will allow you to eat ice cream? List.
  • It must …
  • It should…
  • It will have to…
  • Let’s look at some examples 
Review examples and models

What design additions are NOT linked to the spoon itself but add value? Is the colour or material relevant?

What kind of spoons are these? What are they designed to do?

What is going on here?

Novelty or brilliance? Ideas that catch on or fade away to antique shelves? Are these ideas still around?

Review objects as they change over time, how materials are used, how they meet special needs, and where ethnicity plays a part in design. What other objects could be used to help students understand this?
Prototype Materials

Goal: Students try to decide what types of materials will be best suited to their project design e.g. durable, light weight, water proof etc

Outcome: By becoming familiar with a variety of different materials and their properties students can make more informed decisions as to which materials to use

Preparation: Basically this will consist of a “scavenger Hunt” ask students to bring in examples of various materials also try to encourage cross curricular links between different depts in your school.. Eg wood work, metal work , art etc…

Points to keep in mind when selecting the material for a prototype
  • Will it serve the required purpose
  • Is it cost effective
  • Is it readily available
  • Is it environmentally friendly/ recyclable
  • Is it easy to work with(shape/form)
Session 11C: Prototype,

Develop it!

  • Review our Requirements for SPOON prototype
  • Define the specifications
    • Must hold liquid
    • Must have a handle
    • Must get ice cream to your mouth five times
    • Must hold together – stay secure
    • No noticeable fatigue or decomposition
    • Must use more than two different materials

Build your prototype!

Section 11 Summary
  • By calling on previous sections of the D&D course try to
  • come up with a design idea
  • Give your design some basic specifications which must be
  • met
  • Make some rough sketches of your project
  • Decide on suitable materials
  • Test prototype to see if it meets design requirements,
  • if not.. Why not?
  • Remember,at this stage, you are only building a basic
  • prototype .. NOT a finished product
Section 12: Develop & Test

12A: Evaluate prototype suitability to specifications

12B: Test It

12C: Final Evaluation & Revisions

Session 12A: Develop it!
  • Goal: Continue to work on and develop your prototype.Ask the following questions
  • Are there anyways to improve it? you think the materials you selected are effective,
  • what about the colour,
  • Does it look/feel “User Friendly”
  • Is there any aspect which could be improved?
12 B: Test it!

Goal: Develop your prototype, now that you see it built, is there room for improvement? Could it be bigger, smaller lighter etc

Outcome: By continuing to test and modify your final design you should end up with a fully function prototype, which meets the design specifications


Ask the students to evaluate each others projects

Students must try to point out 3 positive aspects & 3 negative aspects of the project they are evaluating

Allow “original designers” to take this information on board

Investigate if any of the negative aspects can be remedied

12C: Evaluation & Revision

Goal: Using the information obtained from positive & negative feedback, students revisit the prototype and try to solve any design faults

Outcome: Students should now reach the stage whereby they have developed a fully functioning prototype

Procedure: Students should continually refer to their design specifications & feed back to try and improve on any inconsistencies where possible (use worksheet on session 12C)

Session 13: Final Presentation
  • Goal: Understand the importance of presenting projects and presentation choices. Be able to determine what type of fair your students will host.
  • Transition Year Showcase
    • Parents and community members
    • Students present projects
    • Guest provide feedback
  • Mini-Engineering Display
    • Younger students and peers
    • Projects displayed
    • Engineering activities
  • Young Scientist/SciFest (I.T. Tallaght)
    • Science competition in R.D.S.
    • N.B. Closing date for entries is TBA
    • SciFest I.T.Tallaght 28th April
Sharing Expertise
  • The purpose of Solutions Showcase and the Mini-Engineering Display:
  • To recognize students' hard work and celebrate their accomplishments
  • To share engineering expertise with others (peers, family, community, younger students)
  • To get feedback on their projects: display boards, prototypes, and presentations
Final Thoughts – The Curriculum
  • Nurtures students’ interests – allowing them to take ownership of the challenge and solution.
  • Provides a continuous and coherent path of learning,
  • that builds onto each session
  • Connects experiences like field trips and guest speakers
  • together, making sense of them in a larger framework of
  • learning.
  • Tries to encourage students to develop an intrinsic interest
  • in the subject
Final Thoughts – The Training
  • Training is always a compressed version of what you need to take back and implement. Your compressed experience will expand and grow with your students!
  • You can’t always be the expert in this day and age. Your strength lies in the ability to have faith in their ability to learn, and your willingness to learn alongside them.