What are the standard vital signs that will be important to providing PT treatment?
Blood Pressure (BP) • Pulse (heart rate) • Respiration • Temperature • Pain
Vital signs can … • give quantitative measures of the function of cardiovascular and respiratory systems. • indicate the body’s physiological status and function of internal organs.
Monitor vital signs to … • to establish baselines • monitor effectiveness/ineffectiveness of an activity • establish prognosis, POC, goals
Variables that may affect vitals: (see 208) • food consumption • meds • level of physical activity • response to stress • time of day vitals are taken • general health of patient • alcohol or narcotic drug consumption These factors may be modified
age • gender • hormonal status • family history These factors can not be changed.
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries. • Blood pressure results from two forces. One is created by the heart as it pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulatory system. The other is the force of the arteries as they resist the blood flow.
What do blood pressure numbers indicate? • The higher (systolic) number represents the pressure while the ventricles contracts to pump blood to the body. • The lower (diastolic) number represents the pressure when the ventricles relaxes between beats.
The systolic pressure is always stated first. For example: 118/76 (118 over 76); systolic = 118, diastolic = 76. • Normal systolic pressure = 90-120 mm Hg • Normal diastolic pressure = 60-80 mm Hg
How to document BP? • Systolic/Diastolic • 120/80 ** Also document the arm that BP was taken
Review Table 12-1, page 209 *** STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW***
BP will vary with age. • BP will increase with ex especially systolic due to vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels.
Hypertension (HTN) • Hypertension (HTN) - abnormally high BP • HTN increases risk for coronary artery disease, CHF, CVA, PVD, and kidney failure. • Primary vs. Secondary HTN • Primary – no identifiable cause • Secondary – caused by another disease/cause such as renal disease, pregnancy, or meds
Othostatic (Postural) Hypotension • Othostatic (Postural) Hypotension - sudden drop in BP while moving from lying down to sitting or standing
Equipment • Blood pressure cuff • stethoscope • sphygmomanometer
Korotkoff’s sounds • first sound you hear is systolic pressure • the point the sound disappears is the diastolic pressure.
Definition • A rhythmic throbbing in an artery as a result of each heart beat. • The “throbbing” is caused by the regular contraction and alternate expansion of an artery as the blood passes thru the vessel. • The force of the pulse is dependent on the quantity of blood within the vessels.
Pulse Rate • Normal adult pulse rate = 60 – 100 beats per minutes (bpm) • Infants = 120 bpm • Child = 125 bpm
Abnormal Pulse Rate • Bradycardia = slow pulse, less than 60 bpm • Tachycardia = raid heart rate, greater than 100 bpm
Pulse Assessment • Pulse can be assessed at various superficial arteries: radial & carotid is most common Other sites: temporal, femoral, popliteal, and pedal • Review procedure on page 213
Definition • Respiration is the act of breathing that involves the exchange of gases. • The act of breathing involves inhaling (O 2 ) exhaling (CO 2).
Diaphragm moves downward and the intercostals mm lift the ribs and sternum up and out The thoracic cavity increases in size and the lungs expand with air Inhaling = inspiration
Passive process where respiratory mm and thorax relax & lungs recoil Exhaling = expiration
Respiration Rate • Respiration can be influenced by age, body size & stature, body position, meds, emotions, and exercise/activities. Normal Adult = 12 – 18 breaths/minutes Infant = 30 br/min Child = 20 min
Breathing Abnormalities • review definitions on page 214
Body temp can provide info concerning basal metabolic rate, potential presence of infection, and metabolic response to exercise. • Typically, PT and PTA’s do not measure body temp but they do need to knoe the methods and the norms.
Body temp can provide info on circulatory status, potential nerve injury, and local inflammatory responses and infection. • Body temp can be measured by placing a thermometer in the mouth, rectum, under the arm and with some devices in the external auditory canal of the ear.
Normal body temperature varies by person, age, activity, and time of day. • The average normal body temperature is 98.6°F (37°C). • A temperature over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit usually means you have an infection or illness. • Body temperature normally changes throughout the day.