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Vital Signs. Medical Science 1. Lesson Objectives. Understand What vitals are and how to document them Learn How to: Take Pulse Rate Take Respiration Rate Take Blood Pressure. What are vital signs?. Outward signs of what is going on inside of the body Pulse Respirations Blood Pressure

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Vital signs

Vital Signs

Medical Science 1


Lesson objectives
Lesson Objectives

  • Understand

    • What vitals are and how to document them

  • Learn How to:

    • Take Pulse Rate

    • Take Respiration Rate

    • Take Blood Pressure


What are vital signs
What are vital signs?

  • Outward signs of what is going on inside of the body

    • Pulse

    • Respirations

    • Blood Pressure

    • Skin Color

    • Temperature

    • Pupils


Pulse
Pulse

  • Heart pumps blood through blood vessels

  • Blood passes through arteries in waves

  • Surges of blood through the arteries can be felt as pulses

  • The number of pulses felt in a minute is equal to the number of heart beats in a minute

  • Two Components: Rate and Quality

    • Rate=Beats/min

    • Quality: How it feels – strong, weak, thready…


Pulse locations
Pulse Locations

  • Radial Pulse

  • Carotid Pulse

  • Brachial Pulse


Average pulse ranges
Average Pulse Ranges

Age Beats/min

14+ 60-100

11-14 60-105

6-10 70-110

… …

Newborn 120-160


Respirations
Respirations

  • Respiration = The act of breathing

  • Measured in breaths per min

  • 2 actions of respiration are: inspiration and exhalation

    • Inspiration = breath in

    • Exhalation = breath out

  • 1 breath = 1 inspiration & 1 exhalation


Respiration components
Respiration Components

  • Rate and Quality (just like pulse)

    • Rate = Breaths/min

    • Quality = normal, shallow, labored, noisy

What do you think,

normal?


Average respiration ranges
Average Respiration Ranges

Age Breaths/min

14+ 12-20

11-14 12-20

6-10 15-30

… …

Newborn 30-50


Blood pressure
Blood Pressure

Definition:

The force of blood against the walls of the blood vessels

When the heart contracts and forces blood in the arteries – Systolic Pressure

When the heart is relaxed, the remaining pressures in the arteries – Diastolic Pressure


Blood pressure1
Blood Pressure

Presented in the form: Systolic

Diastolic

Average Blood pressure = 120/80


How to take blood pressure
How to Take Blood Pressure

  • Position the blood pressure cuff

    • Arrow over brachial artery

  • Put stethoscope properly into your ears

  • Place the head of the stethoscope on the brachial artery, below the BP cuff

  • Pump the BP cuff to 160 mmHG

  • Slowly release pressure by turning value counterclockwise

  • 1st sound heard = systolic pressure

  • Last sound heard = diastolic pressure


Blood pressure by palpation
Blood Pressure by Palpation

  • Very similar to previous procedure, but no stethoscope is used

  • Instead, place your hand on the radial pulse

  • Pump BP cuff to 160 mmHG

  • Slowly release the value

  • First pulse felt = Systolic pressure

  • Diastolic pressure cannot be measured this way

  • Documented: (Systolic)/Palp.


Now it s your turn
Now it’s your turn!

On the BP arm record the following information:

  • Assess the radial pulse and blood pressure by auscultation; record the values you obtain and compare those scores with “normal” values.

  • Tip: if you don’t know what normal range/scores are supposed to be, find it 


Now it s your turn cont d
Now it’s your turn! (cont’d)

Use your classmates as patients for the following tasks:

  • Tip: Record your answers on the form provided on my website

  • Assess the vital signs of 6 people


Think deeper
Think deeper!!

Answer the following questions on the BACK of your assessment form!

  • Why would a healthy 18 year old person need vital signs assessed at a sports physical?

  • Why would a cardiac pt have the dorsalis pedis pulse site assessed pre and post op?


The end
THE END!

Use your own paper to complete the LAST TASK!

Write 2 separate case stories.

  • First story describes a situation (accident, trauma, chronic illness, etc.) in which you would assess homeostasis using a pulse site located on the patient’s upper body


The end cont d
THE END! (cont’d)

  • Second story describes a situation (accident, trauma, chronic illness, etc.) in which you would assess homeostasis using a pulse site located on the patient’s lower body

    Include in both stories:

  • Name of pulse site, description of it’s location and WHY you are assessing at that location.

  • Provide as many details as possible in your story