Kim Dunbar SBI3U Mr. Watts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kim Dunbar SBI3U Mr. Watts
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Kim Dunbar SBI3U Mr. Watts

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  1. Kim Dunbar SBI3U Mr. Watts

  2. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Definition -Acute or chronic, contagious bacterial infection(mdadvice) • Serious bacterial infection that if goes un treated will result in death but is completely treatable and curable • Bacteria is called tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium Tuberculosis • Called the consumption disease because it consumes the body. Bacteria tubercle bacillus

  3. Before being called tuberculoses it was referred to as the consumption disease (The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine) • Is considered to be one of the oldest bacteria • Started off in animals and then was spread to humans either through soil or milk • First evidence was found in Germany, dating back to 5000BC

  4. 9/10 people do not develop symptoms • First stage symptoms include • coughing(longer then three weeks), • sputum with a yellow or green colour and may have blood streaked, • chest pains, • weight loss • weakness or feeling tired • and may or may not have a low grade fever • Second stage symptoms • Spreads other parts of the body: lungs, lymph nodes, membrane that covers the brain(meninges), joints, the kidneys, the membrane covering the digestive system(peritoneum)

  5. TB is spread when an infected person(active TB) coughs or sneezes and a person(in active TB) breathes in the infected droplets and infects themselves. TB is only spread through person to person contact To become infected usually takes longtime exposure with the infected person (PCWs ,inmates and Family members) • A less common way To attract TB is from cattle’s Unpasteurized milk

  6. How Can I get it? • Although a person is exposed to a infected person, they may not become infected themselves because their immune system will “fight it off” leaving the bacteria alive but inactive • When the immune system does not fight it off this leads to an infection (no symptoms not at risk of spreading TB) when the bacteria grows and your immune system can no longer fight it off, this will eventually develop into a disease and this processes can take up to two years • Living in poverty areas and having close contact with the infected person

  7. TBProgression in four stages • Immune system kills bacteria and there is no infection • immune system does not fight it off but TB becomes dormant and never grows, leaving no infection • Is dormant for any period of time , and is not contagious until symptoms appear • bacteria multiplies immediately and person is contagious

  8. all new cases are resistant to at least one first line drug (Isoniazid and Rifampin) • MDR-TB strains could arise as a consequence of sequential accumulation of mutations explaining resistance to single agents, or by a single step process such as acquisition of an MDR element (Jacksonville Medicine) • Drug resistant strains can emerge when chemotherapy is intermittent • MDR-TB had been reported in Nepal (48%), India (33.8%), and New York City (30%) in the early 1900s

  9. Risk factors • Age 1/3 of people diagnosed with TB are over the age of 65 or under the age of 5 • Racial and ethnic groups race related biological factors such as people who live in a lower socioeconomics. Some of the most common places where immigrants come from with high population of TB are Mexico, the Philippines, Vietnam, India and China. • Lifestyle • HIV AIDS, • people who taken drugs to suppress their immune system(organ transplant), • people who have silicosis(lung disease), • alcoholics,/drug abusers, • homeless people • steroid users, • people who are underweight, • cigarette smokers, • diabetes mellitus(all types) • people who have had cancer of the head or neck, • people who have had a tumor • nursing home residents and prison inmates

  10. Primary Pulmonary - contagious bacterial infection that mainly involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs. Extra pulmonary -involves the multiple organs such as the kidneys, liver, brain, urinary tract and bones

  11. How do I know if I have TB • Skin sample test Mantoux Method  is where they inject the non active TB bacteria into your skin and after 2-3 days results tells if you have TB or not • Sputum and blood samples- the doctor would take blood/saliva samples and have them tested for TB (Health Canada) • X rays – having an X ray of the lungs will show TB with discolouration of the x-ray(darker where TB is detected)

  12. What does TB look like? Lesion of tuberculosis in the lungs X ray of lungs with TB

  13. Drug therapy (see next slide) is free along with any other treatment necessary in Ontario (Ontario Ministry of Health andLong Term Care) • Used to do surgery and attempt the removal of it in the lungs, this was stopped because of its degree of effectiveness • factors influence the degree of success of treatment programs including duration and complexity of therapy, ease of healthcare access, treatment cost, patient adherence, and drug side effects

  14. Rifampin is a first line TB medication • Isoniazidis a synthetic, bactericidal agent, used as a first line TB drug (Just the Facts) • Ethionamide is a second line TB drug that is thought to inhibit mycolic acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. • Pyrazinamideis a structural analogue of nicotinamide that is used as a first line TB drug • Ethambutolis a bactericidal first line TB drug • Streptomycin is another first line TB drug

  15. Most common cause of death among people with HIV AIDS • Second cause of death by infectious diseases • Kills over 3 million people per year(mainly in underdeveloped countries) • 1/3 of the population has dormant TB • The Bronte family suffered from TB. Emily, Charlotte, and Anne all famous novelists • Can arise several weeks or years after first getting the bacteria (Health Matters)