I. Costs of victory • Empire and war cost money; 140 million pound debt • Proclamation of 1763 – colonists couldn’t move west of Appalachians – solve Indian problem/1000 wagons west in 1765; Quartering Act pays for soldiers
Political ideas thriving in colonies • republicanism – government depends on involved, virtuous citizens (town meeting) • Radical Whigs – resist the threat to liberty posed by corrupt authority (king and his ministers)
Mercantilism – money is power • Favorable balance of trade • More exports than imports==colonies (unplanned in Britain) • Colonies Produce Raw materials (gold, timber, tobacco, sugar); markets for manufactured goods (boats, snuff, rum)
review • Why was Britain hurtin’? • What did the Proclamation of 1763 say? How did colonists react? • What is republicanism? What were Whigs worried about? • What’s the theory of mercantilism? • What’s the role of colonies in mercantilism?
II. Mercantilism issues • Navigation Acts – commerce to and from colonies had to be in British ships • Or they had to stop in Britain and pay tariff duties.
Salutary neglect • Britain tolerated smuggling (John Hancock) and bribes to get around Navigation Acts. • Colonial economy boomed, had British military protection, but resented the laws • Boston Gazette: “A colonist cannot make a button, a horseshoe, nor a hobnail, but some snooty ironmonger or respectable buttonmaker of Britain shall bawl and squall that his honor’s worship is most eggregiously maltreated, injured, cheated, and robbed by the rascally American republicans.”
beginning of tension • Prime Minister Grenville enforced Navigation Acts, 1763 • Sugar Act 1764 – increased tariff on sugar, 1st law to raise revenue; protested and lowered
review • What did the Navigation Acts say? • Name two problems created? • What was salutary neglect? • Why did colonists resent the Navigation laws?
III. Stamp Act • Stamp Act 1765 – to pay debt/for soldiers, tax/stamp on paper goods like bills of sale, playing cards, marriage and death certificates - everything • “taxation without representation” - James Otis
controversy • Grenville – virtual v. direct representation – both a stretch • Admiralty courts with no jury tried offenders, guilty unless proven innocent
Taking action • Stamp Act Congress -9 colonies met in NY City; list of rights and grievances • Intimidation and Nonimportation/ – Sons and Daughters of Liberty; no tax agents
review • What slogan? • Two theories of representation • Stamp Act Congress – what and where? • What two revolutionary groups? • Who in England was hurt by the law? • After repeal, what law did Parliament pass?
IV. Action reaction • British merchants, manufacturers, shippers, laborers hurt – pushed repeal • 1766 – repeal/statue/Declaratory Act – British sovereignty over colonies
Action reaction • New Prime Minister Townsend Acts – indirect tax on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea • Boston Massacre – Crispus Attucks and 10 others killed protesting; news spread by Committees of Correspondence
Tea Act • Tax on tea kept, then tea act – monopoly for British E. India Company • Boston Tea Party – 100 colonists threw tea overboard when Hutchinson wouldn’t back down
review • Who pushed for repeal of the Stamp Act • What did Parliament pass immediately after repeal? • What was taxed by the Townsend Acts? • What was an indirect tax? • What resulted from the protests against the Townsend Acts? • What did the Intolerable Acts do? • What did the Quebec Act do and why was it misinterpreted?
v. Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts • Closed ports (Boston) and legislatures (town meetings), new Quartering Act • Quebec Act – respect French Catholicism and culture in Quebec, including no rep. assembly or jury trial in civil cases
First Continental Congress • All but Georgia sent delegates, including Washington, both Adams (John the star), and Patrick Henry. • Association boycott until grievances addressed; tar and feathers for violators
Lexington and Concord • April 1775 British sent to capture gunpowder stores, John Hancock, and Sam Adams; Paul Revere warned • 8 minutemen killed at Lexington; 70 British killed at Concord
review • What did the Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts do? • What did the Quebec Act do? • Who came to the First Continental Congress? • What was its message to Britain? • How did the fighting at Lexington start? • How was fighting at Concord different?
I. Advantages/Battles British American Numbers Money Navy Hessians , Indians, slaves Disorganized colonists Weak Continental Congress Colonial inflation (not worth a continental) France Whigs in Britain Washington, Franklin, Marquis de Lafayette, Baron Von Steuben Defensive war, supply lines for British Belief in cause
I. Battles/events • Bunker Hill/Breed’s Hill – British took hill because colonists ran out of ammo • Trenton/Princeton – Washington crosses Delaware Christmas
More battles • Saratoga – Arnold beats Burgoyne, French help • South – bloody guerilla warfare; hero “fighting Quaker Nathanael Greene” • Yorktown – Cornwallis trapped by Washington, French navy, surrenders
Match ‘em • Better army, navy, training, discipline, Hessians, Indians, slaves • Washington, home field, belief in cause • Bunker Hill • Trenton/Princeton • Saratoga • South • Yorktown • Turning point/French help • British pyric victory • Cornwallis surrenders • Guerilla warfare, Greene • Washington crosses Delaware • British advantages • American advantages
II. People and ideas • Thomas Paine – Common Sense – Britain too small/far away/unrepublican • Jefferson Dec. Ind. – • Intro • Political ideas – universal equality, social contract, popular sovereignty, right/duty to revolt • Grievances • Declaring independence
strategies • British – isolate NE/ruined by Howe, control South/stopped by Greene and France • Americans – hold on/keep fighting (Washington), get French help (Franklin)
III. Taking sides • Patriots/rebels/whigs – NE centered – Sam Adams, Patrick Henry (Va) – “give me liberty or give me death!” • Loyalists/tories – well off – NYC and Charleston, Quaker Penn and NJ, also Anglican Church, more slaves
Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Franklin, Adams, John Jay made separate peace with Britain w/o French permission. • U.S. independent, stretched to Mississippi R., Great Lakes, and Florida. • Britain was promised good treatment of Loyalists and debts paid
Match ‘em • Thomas Paine • Thomas Jefferson • Patriots • Loyalists • Capture NE/South • Hold on/get help • Britain too big, far away, monarchical • Social contract • British Paris benefits • American Paris benefits • British side • American side • Declaration of Independence • Independence, NW Territory • Debts paid, lenience for loyalists • Common Sense • American strategy • British strategy
III. Governing the New Nation • 10 state constitutions, 2nd Continental Congress, but no real govt. • Articles of Confederation – a firm league of friendship - written 1777, ratification delay til 1781 over land
Structure/powers of government under Articles • 1 branch – legislative, President for 1 year • 1 vote per state • 9/13 states to pass law • Unanimous vote to amend Articles • Under the Articles government could make laws, treaties, raise armies and declare war
achievements of Articles • Land Ordinance of 1785 – how to get land; NW Ordinance 1787 – 60,000 to become a state. • Transition government/best possible
review • What Revolutionary War government? • What was our first plan for government? • How many branches? • States to pass a law? • States to amend the Articles? • 4 “powers?” • Name 3 government achievements under the Articles.
IV. Weaknesses of the Articles • It couldn’t tax, • Couldn’t settle disputes between states, • Couldn’t regulate trade between states or with other countries • no executive or judicial branch
Shays’ Rebellion • Indebted W. Massachussetts farmers about to lose land, faced high taxes and inflation (continentals) • Led by Daniel Shays, took over govt. buildings, broke farmers out of prison; national government could do nothing
Madison, Philadelphia, Constitutional Convention • Only 9 states sent delegates to the Annapolis Convention; 12 sent to Philadelphia • In Philly, James Madison, the “father of the Constitution,” proposed Virginia Plan, scrapping Articles in favor of a a strong government with 3 branches, based on Montesquieu’s ideas
compromises • Great Compromise – Va. V. NJ Plan • 3/5 compromise – counting slaves • Slave trade compromise – ends 1808
review • Name 4 problems of government under the Articles. • Explain Shays’ Rebellion. • Why didn’t Annapolis Convention accomplish anything? • Who is the “Father of the Constitution? • Explain 3 compromises made in Philadelphia.
review • What was different about the Second Continental Congress? • What 3 key decisions were made by the 2nd Continental Congress? • What were the pros and cons of Washington as general? • Why was Bunker Hill a pyrrhic victory? • What was Olive Branch Petition and King’s reaction to it?
2nd Continental Congress • All 13 colonies - Made demands, raised war money, chose Washington to head army • His leadership qualities - patient, brave, self-disciplined, fair, trusted, dedicated.
Battle of Bunker Hill • British attacked straight up Breed’s (not Bunker) Hill, taking heavy casualties to take the Hill. • King George III rejected Olive Branch Petition, proclaiming colonies in rebellion.
II. 1776 - Common Sense • Thomas Paine, 1776, Common Sense – colonies are bigger and across the ocean • Republic - power from virtuous people, like practiced in the town meetings
Declaration of Independence • Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman (judge), Livingston (lawyer) • Borrowing from Locke – social contract – government protects rights; people consent to be governed
Parts of Declaration • 1. Explain why • 2. all men have rights • 3. government protects rights • 4. if it really doesn’t, alter or abolish • 5. long list of grievances (“He has…”) • 6. declare independence
review • When was Common Sense written, by whom? • Give two common sense arguments for independence? • What was a republic, to Paine? • Who served on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence? • What is the social contract? • List the 6 steps.
III. Taking sides • Patriots/rebels/whigs – NE centered – Sam Adams, Patrick Henry (Va) – “give me liberty or give me death!” • Loyalists/tories – well off – NYC and Charleston, Quaker Penn and NJ, also Anglican Church
Loyalist fate • African-Americans sought freedom as loyalists – NY to Nova Scotia (Canada), but some sold from Va to W. Indies. • Some Loyalists fled, others stayed and lost property or eventually became Americans.
Washington’s NJ Campaign • British based in NYC with huge navy, defeated Washington at Long Island. • Washington crossed Delaware River Christmas night, defeated Hessians at Trenton, British at Princeton a week later.
review • Famous Patriots/other names/quotes? • Who were the Loyalists/where/other names? • What became of African-American Loyalists? • What became of other Loyalists?
I. The war turns • The British failed to isolate New England when Gen. Howe stayed too long in Philadelphia rather than pursue Washington. • Washington’s troops suffered through winter at Valley Forge, trained by Prussian Baron Von Steuben.