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FUNGI. Federoff. What Are Fungi?. Many fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from decaying matter in the soil. Others live as parasites, absorbing nutrients from their hosts. What Are Fungi?.

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fungi

FUNGI

Federoff

what are fungi
What Are Fungi?
  • Many fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from decaying matter in the soil. Others live as parasites, absorbing nutrients from their hosts.
what are fungi1
What Are Fungi?
  • The cell walls of fungi are composed of chitin, a polymer made of modified sugars that is also found in the external skeletons of insects.
  • The presence of chitin is one of several features that show fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.
structure and function
Structure and Function
  • Yeasts are tiny fungi that live most of their lives as single cells.
  • Mushrooms and other fungi, on the other hand, grow much larger. Their bodies are made up of cells that form long, slender branching filaments called hyphae.
structure and function1
Structure and Function
  • In most fungi, cross walls divide the hyphae into compartments resembling cells, each containing one or two nuclei. In the cross walls, there are openings through which cytoplasm and organelles can move.
structure and function2
Structure and Function
  • The body of a mushroom is actually the fruiting body, the reproductive structure of the fungus.
  • The fruiting body grows from the mycelium, the mass of branching hyphae below the soil. Clusters of mushrooms are often part of the same mycelium, which means they are part of the same organism.
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Fungi can reproduce asexually, primarily by releasing spores that are adapted to travel through air and water.
  • Breaking off a hypha or budding off a cell can also serve as asexual reproduction.
reproduction1
Reproduction
  • Most fungi can also reproduce sexually. The life cycle of the bread mold Rhizopus stolonifer is shown.
reproduction2
Reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction in fungi often involves two different mating types. One mating type is called “+” (plus) and the other “–” (minus).
  • Hyphae of opposite mating types fuse together, bringing + and – nuclei together in the same cell.
reproduction3
Reproduction
  • The + and – nuclei form pairs that divide as the mycelium grows. Many of the paired nuclei fuse to form diploid zygotes within a zygospore.
reproduction4
Reproduction
  • The zygospore germinates and a sporangium emerges.
  • The sporangium reproduces asexually, releasing haploid spores produced by meiosis.
  • Each spore has a different combination of parental genes, and each can make a new mycelium.
diversity of fungi
Diversity of Fungi
  • More than 100,000 species of fungi are known. Biologists have placed fungi into several distinct groups.
  • The major groups of fungi differ from one another in their reproductive structures.
decomposition
Decomposition
  • Many fungi feed by releasing digestive enzymes that break down leaves, fruit, and other organic material into simple molecules. These molecules then diffuse into the fungus.
  • Many organisms remove important trace elements and nutrients from the soil. Fungi recycle these essential elements and nutrients. If these materials were not returned, the soil would quickly be depleted.
parasitism
Parasitism
  • Parasitic fungi can cause serious diseases in plants and animals by disrupting homeostasis.
plant diseases
Plant Diseases
  • A number of parasitic fungi cause diseases that threaten food crops. Corn smut, for example, destroys corn kernels.
  • Some mildews, which infect a wide variety of plants, are also fungi.
animal diseases
Animal Diseases
  • Parasitic fungi can also infect humans.
  • The fungus that causes athlete’s foot forms a mycelium in the outer layers of the skin, which produces a red, inflamed sore from which the spores can easily spread from person to person.
  • The yeast Candida albicans is often responsible for vaginal yeast infections and for infections of the mouth called thrush.
lichens
Lichens
  • A lichen is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. The photosynthetic organism is either a green alga or a cyanobacterium, or both.
lichens1
Lichens
  • Lichens are extremely resistant to drought and cold. Therefore, they can grow in places where few other organisms can survive—on dry bare rock in deserts and on the tops of mountains.
  • Lichens are able to survive in these harsh environments because the green algae or cyanobacteria carry out photosynthesis, providing the fungus with a source of energy, while the fungus provides the green algae or cyanobacteria with water and minerals.
lichens2
Lichens
  • Lichens are often the first organisms to enter barren environments, gradually breaking down the rocks on which they grow. In this way, lichens help in the early stages of soil formation.
  • Lichens are also remarkably sensitive to air pollution: They are among the first organisms to be affected when air quality deteriorates.
mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae
  • Fungi also form mutualistic relationships with plant roots. These symbiotic associations of plant roots and fungi are called mycorrhizae.
  • Researchers estimate that 80 to 90 percent of all plant species form mycorrhizae with fungi.
  • The hyphae collect water and minerals and bring them to the roots, greatly increasing the effective surface area of the root system. In addition, the fungi release enzymes that free nutrients in the soil.
  • The plants, in turn, provide the fungi with the products of photosynthesis.
mycorrhizae1
Mycorrhizae
  • This graph illustrates the growth rates of three species of trees with and without mycorrhizae.