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Computer Concepts - Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition. UNIT F: Data Security. Objectives. Know what can go wrong Protect computer systems Understand authentication Explore security threats and malware Avoid security threats and malware. Objectives.

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Objectives l.jpg
Objectives Edition

Know what can go wrong

Protect computer systems

Understand authentication

Explore security threats and malware

Avoid security threats and malware

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Objectives Edition

Examine network and Internet access security

Explore Web and email security

Examine backup procedures

Talking points: Prosecuting computer crime

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • Risk management

    • Process of identifying potential threats to computer equipment and data

    • Implementing plans to avoid as many threats as possible

    • Developing steps to recover from unavoidable disasters

  • Risk management objectives

    • Reduce downtime

    • Maintain good quality service

    • Promote business continuity

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • What can go wrong?

    • Power outages

    • Hardware failures

    • Software failures

    • Human error

    • Computer viruses

    • Less common threats include natural disasters, acts of war, security breaches, malicious hackers, and theft

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • Power failure

    • Complete loss of power to computer system

    • Even brief power interruption can force computer to reboot and lose all data in RAM

    • Power spikes, voltage spikes, and power surges can destroy circuitry or damage a motherboard

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • Data center - specialized facility designed to house and protect computer system or its data

    • Includes special features like

      • Fireproof construction

      • Earthquake-proof foundations

      • Sprinkler systems

      • Power generators

      • Secure doors and windows

      • Antistatic floor coverings

      • Locations safe from floods, earthquakes, and tornadoes

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • Effect of hardware failure depends on which component fails

  • Software failure can result in lost or inaccurate data

  • Common human errors include

    • Entering inaccurate data

    • Failing to follow required procedures

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • Cyberterrorism

    • Terrorist acts committed via Internet

    • Uses viruses and worms to destroy data and corrupt systems

      • Power grids and telecommunications

  • Disasters that destroy data can and do occur

    • Despite risk-prevention measures,

    • Floods, earthquakes, fires, etc.

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Knowing What Can Go Wrong Edition

  • Disaster recovery plan

    • Step-by-step plan describes methods used to secure data against disaster

    • Explains how to recover lost data if and when disaster occurs

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Protecting Computer Systems Edition

  • Value of stolen computer often determined by data contained in system

    • Bank account numbers, credit card numbers, PINs

      • Can allow thief to wipe out checking or savings accounts or use credit card

    • Thieves can use stolen data to assume identity

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Protecting Computer Systems Edition

  • Protecting computer from theft

    • Use common sense

    • Never leave notebook computer unattended or in unsecured room

    • Anchor your computer to your desk with special lock or security plate

    • Motion sensor alarms

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Protecting Computer Systems Edition

  • Tracking and recovery software - used to track stolen computer as soon as thief connects to Internet

    • Some tracking software can be configured to delete data if computer is stolen

  • Passwords can make data difficult to access

  • Save and store unique information about your computer

    • Make, model, serial number

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Protecting Computer Systems Edition

  • Power protection

    • UPS (uninterruptible power supply)

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Protecting Computer Systems Edition

  • Surge strip (surge protector, surge suppressor)

    • Low-cost alternative to UPS

    • Designed to protect electrical devices from power surges and voltage spikes

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Protecting Computer Systems Edition

  • Fans help keep computers vented

    • Be aware of ventilation around computer

    • Should draw air from room and blow it across inside components

    • Do not put papers, books, or other items on top of monitor

      • Can heat up quickly

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Understanding Authentication Edition

  • Authentication protocol

    • Any method that confirms person’s identity when using computer system

    • Something person carries

    • Something person knows

    • Some unique physical characteristics

      • Biometrics

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Understanding Authentication Edition

  • Two-factor authentication

    • Verifies identity using two independent elements of confirmation

    • More secure than single-factor authentication

  • User ID

    • Also known as username, login, screen name, online nickname, handle

    • Typically public and do not offer any level of security

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Understanding Authentication Edition

  • Password

    • Verifies user ID and guarantees that you are the person you claim to be

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Understanding Authentication Edition

  • PIN

    • Like passwords, PINs are something user knows

    • PIN - short sequence of numbers, can be entered using numeric keypad

    • Password tends to be longer sequence letters, numbers, and special characters

  • If password(s) stolen, could become victim of identity theft

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Understanding Authentication Edition

  • Brute force attack

    • Method for stealing user IDs and passwords

    • Uses password-cracking software to steal information

  • Password manager

    • Utility software that generates secure passwords and stores them along with user IDs

    • Allows for use of unique and secure passwords for every one of your online accounts

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Understanding Authentication Edition

  • Restricting access to computer

    • Keep it in locked room when not in use

    • Password protection and authentication

  • User rights

    • Rules that limit directories and files each user can access

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Malware

    • Malicious code - one of biggest threats to your computer security

  • Computer virus

    • Set of program instructions

      • Attaches itself to file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files on same computer

    • Does NOT spread by itself from one computer to another

      • Spreads when infected files are distributed

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Hackers, crackers, black hats, and cybercriminals create and unleash malware

    • Some malware intended to be prank or mildly annoying vandalism

    • Some created to distribute political messages or disrupt operations at specific companies

    • In many cases motivation is money

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Viruses can

    • Corrupt files

    • Destroy data

    • Display irritating message

    • Disrupt operations

    • Deliver payload or trigger event

      • Time bombs, logic bombs

  • Boot sector virus

    • Infects system files computer uses every time it turns on

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Computer worm

    • Self-copying program designed to carry out unauthorized activity on victim’s computer

    • Able to spread themselves from one computer to another

    • Enter through security holes in browsers and OSs

    • Usually sent via emails or by victims clicking infected pop-up ads or links contained in emails

    • Can even infect mobile phones

    • Mass-mailing worm spreads by sending itself to every address on infected computer

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

Simulated Worm Attack

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Trojan horse

    • Computer program seems to perform one function while actually doing something else

    • Not designed to spread to other computers

    • Notorious for stealing passwords using keylogger

  • Remote Access Trojan (RAT)

    • Backdoor capabilities that allow remote hackers to

      • Transmit files to victim’s computer

      • Search for data

      • Run programs

      • Use victim’s computer as relay station for breaking into other computers

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Bot

    • Software that can automate task or autonomously execute task when commanded to do so

      • Called intelligent agent

    • Because intelligent agent behaves like robot, often called bot

  • Zombie

    • Computer under control of bot

  • Botmaster

    • Person who controls many bot-infested computers and can link them together into network called botnet

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Spyware

    • Program that secretly gathers personal information without victim’s knowledge

    • Usually for advertising and commercial purposes

    • Can piggyback on seemingly legitimate freeware or shareware downloads

    • Can also allow spyware into computer by:

      • Clicking infected pop-up ads

      • Surfing through seemingly valid and secure but compromised Web sites

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Blended threat

    • Malware that combines more than one type of malicious program

  • What does malware do?

    • Network traffic jam

    • Denial-of-service attacks

    • Browser reconfiguration

    • Delete and modify files

    • Access confidential information

    • Disable antivirus and firewall software

    • Control your computer

    • Performance degradation

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • May not even be aware that computer is infected

  • Symptoms of infected computer include

    • Irritating messages or sounds

    • Frequent pop-up ads (often pornographic in nature)

    • Sudden appearance of new Internet toolbar

    • Addition to favorites list

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • More symptoms of infected computer

    • Prolonged system start-up

    • Slower than usual response to clicking or typing

    • Browser or application crashes

    • Missing files

    • Disabled security

    • Network activity when not actively browsing or sending email

    • Frequent rebooting

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Keeping your computer safe

    • Install and activate security software

    • Keep software patches and operating system service packs up to date

    • Do not open suspicious email attachments

    • Obtain software only from reliable sources

    • Use security software to scan for malware

    • Do not click pop-up ads

    • Avoid unsavory Web sites

    • Disable option Hide extensions for known file types in Windows

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Security suite

    • Integrates several security modules to protect against the most common types of malware

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Security suite advantages

    • Costs less than buying stand-alone modules

    • Learning one interface simpler than learning several

  • Security suite disadvantages

    • Installation requires uninstalling or disabling all other antivirus, antispyware, and firewall software on your computer

    • Suites cannot generally run with other stand-alone security products

    • Overlapping coverage can cause glitches

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Antivirus software

    • Utility software that looks for and removes viruses, Trojan horses, worms, and bots

    • Included in several suites or as stand-alone

    • Available for all types of computer and data storage

    • Dependable, but not infallible

  • Antivirus software searches for virus signature

    • Section of program code that can be used to identify known malicious program

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Once antivirus software installed:

    • Set it to start when your computer starts

    • Keep running full time in background

  • List of virus signatures updated frequently

    • Information stored in one or more files called virus definitions

    • Can be manually or automatically downloaded

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Avoiding Security Threats Editionand Malware

  • Configure antivirus software to periodically scan all files on computer

  • If you suspect that computer has been infected

    • Immediately use security software to scan computer

    • If scan finds malware, program can

      • Try to remove infection

      • Quarantine file

      • Delete file

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Network and Internet EditionAccess Security

  • Local area networks (LAN)

    • Susceptible to attacks from within network and from outside

  • Threats to wireless networks

    • LANjacking or war driving

    • War chalking

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Network and Internet EditionAccess Security

  • Securing wireless network

    • Wireless encryption

    • WEP, WPA, WPA2

  • Wireless network key (network security key)

    • Basis for scrambling and unscrambling data transmitted between wireless devices

    • Similar to password, only longer

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Network and Internet EditionAccess Security

Many wireless networks are not encrypted and are open to public

Others are for public use but are encrypted and require network key

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Network and Internet EditionAccess Security

  • Encryption transforms message so contents are hidden from unauthorized readers

    • Prevents intrusions

    • Secures credit card numbers and other personal information transferred while using e-commerce sites

    • Secures computer archives

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Network and Internet EditionAccess Security

  • Firewall

    • Software or hardware designed to filter out suspicious packets attempting to enter or leave a computer

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

  • Cookie

    • Message containing information about user sent from Web server to browser

    • Stored on user’s hard drive

    • Marketers, hackers, and pranksters have found harmful uses for cookies

  • Ad-serving cookie

    • Allows third party to track activities at any site containing their banner ads

    • Privacy issues have developed

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

Browser may have setting that blocks all third-party cookies to prevent ad-serving cookies

Some companies may allow opting out of allowing cookies to be stored on computer

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

  • Flash cookie (local shared object)

    • Flash equivalent of conventional cookie

    • Marketers turning to Flash cookies as alternative way to track customers

  • Web bug (clear GIF)

    • Typically 1X1 pixel graphic embedded in Web page or email

    • Almost invisible

    • Designed to track who’s reading page or message

    • Can generate third-party ad-serving cookies

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

  • Antispyware

    • Security software designed to identify and neutralize Web bugs, ad-serving cookies, and spyware

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

  • Spam

    • Unwanted electronic junk mail that arrives in online mailbox

  • Blocking spam

    • Email authentication techniques

      • Sender ID, Domain Keys

    • Spam filter

      • Utility that captures unsolicited email before it reaches inbox

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

  • Fake Web site

    • Looks legitimate, created by third party to be clever replication of real site

    • Used to collect credit card numbers from unwary shoppers

    • Always review URL in Address box to ensure site is authentic before entering sensitive information

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Exploring Web and Email Security Edition

  • Using Internet anonymously

    • Anonymous proxy service

      • Uses go-between (proxy) server to relay Web requests after masking originating IP address

      • Tend to operate more slowly than regular browser

      • Sometimes blocked due to use in spam and flooding sites with traffic

      • Can still be compromised by third parties or monitored under court order

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

  • Need backup plan that will help recover lost data in event of loss

    • Backup - copy of one or more files in case original(s) are damaged

    • Full backup (full-system backup)

      • Contains copy of every program, data, and system file on computer

  • Choosing backup device depends on value of data, current equipment, and budget

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

  • Most computer owners use backup devices they already have

    • Writable CD, DVD, solid state storage card, tape, Zip disk, USB flash drive

  • Some consumers purchaseexternal hard drive

    • Easily connected, disconnected,and stored

  • Remote storage options also available

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

  • Full backup takes a lot of time

    • Alternative is to back up most important files

      • Make sure computer-based documents are protected

      • If system fails, have to manually restore all software and data files

  • Also consider backing up

    • Windows Registry

    • Connection information

    • Email folders and address book

    • Favorite URLs

    • Purchased downloaded files

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

Restore data from backup to original storage medium or its replacement

Process depends on backup equipment, software, and exactly what is needed to restore

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

  • Before backing up to local area network server

    • Check with network administrator to make sure storing large amounts of data is allowed

    • Make sure LAN server is backed up regularly

  • Several Web sites offer fee-based backup storage space

    • Don’t relay on this option as only method of backup

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

  • Backup software

    • Utility programs designed to back up and restore files

  • Restore point

    • Contains computer settings

    • If problems occur, might be able to roll back to restore point

  • Boot disk

    • Removable storage medium containing OS files needed to boot computer without accessing hard drive

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

  • Recovery CD (recovery disk)

    • Bootable CD, DVD, or other media

    • Contains complete copy of computer’s hard drive as it existed when shipped from manufacturer

    • Returns computer to default state, does not restore data, software you installed, or configuration settings

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Examining Backup Procedures Edition

Steps to Create Backup Plan

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Talking Points: EditionProsecuting Computer Crime

Computer crimes – costly to businesses and individuals – cover wide variety of activities

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition


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Talking Points: EditionProsecuting Computer Crime

  • Traditional laws do not cover range of possibilities for computer crime

  • Authorities must not only capture computer criminals, but decide how law can be used to prosecute them

  • Questions concerning harshness of penalties have been raised

    • Some argue against many computer crimes being considered crimes

Computer Concepts – Illustrated Introductory, Seventh Edition