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Graphic Organizers

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  1. Graphic Organizers Presented by David Amelunke

  2. Objectives • Learn what research shows about the use of Graphic Organizers on student achievement • Learn when to use the various types of Graphic Organizers • Learn methods to create Graphic Organizers • Generate ideas for use of Graphic Organizers in your classroom

  3. Vocabulary • Nonlinguistic Representations - imaginary forms of knowledge in the mind such as mental pictures or even physical sensations • Visual Learning - a variety of activities and systems for organizing information graphically or visually • Graphic Organizers - visual depictions of knowledge that help guide the thinking process

  4. Nonlinguistic Representations Information from Classroom Instructions That Works: Research Based-Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickeringand Jane E. Pollock

  5. Storing Information • Many Psychologists adhere to a “dual coding” theory of information storage • This theory says that knowledge is stored in the brain in two forms - a linguistic form and an imagery form

  6. Linguistic • The linguistic form is in words or statements • This form could be thought of as containing actual statements in long-term memory Imagery/Nonlinguistic The imagery form is expressed as mental pictures or even physical sensations such smell, taste, touch, sound and kinesthetic association

  7. Using Both • The more we use both systems of representation the better we are able to think about and recall knowledge • This is particularly important in the classroom because linguistically is the primary method of presenting knowledge in the classroom • We either talk to students about content or they read about new content • This means students are left to generate their own nonlinguistic representations

  8. Increasing Student Achievement • When teachers help students make non-linguistic representations students achieve more • Engaging students in the creation of nonlinguistic representations stimulates and increases activity in the brain

  9. Generalizations RegardingNonlinguistic Representations • A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representations • The goal of instructional strategies is to produce nonlinguistic representations of knowledge in the minds of students • It can be accomplished in many ways: • Creating Graphic Representations • Making Physical Models • Generating Mental Pictures • Drawing Pictures and Pictographs • Engaging in Physical Activities

  10. Generalizations RegardingNonlinguistic Representations • Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge. For example a student can elaborate on his knowledge of fractions when he constructs a mental model of how a fraction might appear in concrete form • The process of generating nonlinguistic representations forces students to elaborate on their knowledge and leads to deeper understanding and easier recall of information

  11. Classroom Practice inNonlinguistic Representations • Graphic Organizers are the most common way to help students generate nonlinguistic representations • Graphic Organizers combine the linguistic mode in that they use words and phrases and the nonlinguistic mode in that they use symbols and arrows to represent relationships

  12. Graphic Organizers have great utility in the classroom because they correspond to six common patterns that information can be divided into: • Descriptive pattern • Time sequence pattern • Process/cause-effect pattern • Episode pattern • Generalization/principle pattern • Concept pattern

  13. Descriptive Pattern • Descriptive Patterns can be used to represent facts about specific people, places, things and events • This information does not have to be in any specific order

  14. Descriptive Pattern Example

  15. Time Sequence Pattern • Time sequence patterns organize events in a specific chronological order • For example, the events leading up to the Vietnam War can be shown in a time sequence pattern organizer

  16. Process/Cause-Effect Pattern • Process/Cause-Effect Patterns organize information into a casual network leading to a specific outcome • An example would be study habits that make a good student

  17. Episode Pattern Episode Pattern Organizers arrange data about specific events including: Setting (time and place) Specific People A specific duration A specific sequence of events A particular cause and effect An Example would be information leading up to the Civil War

  18. Episode Pattern An Example would be information leading up to the Civil War

  19. Generalization/Principle Patterns • Gereralization/Principle Patterns organize information into general statements with supporting details. • An Example would be statements supporting a hypothesis that economic conditions were the cause of the Civil War.

  20. Concept Pattern • Concept Patterns organize information around a word or phrase that represents entire classes or categories of people, places things or events • The characteristics or attributes of the concept along with examples of each should be included in this example. • An example would be a teacher asking a student to show the concept of fables along with examples and characteristics of them.

  21. Concept Pattern A Concept Pattern could look like this

  22. So how do you makea Graphic Organizer and what software can you use?