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QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF “Morphology of the words” Lesson 13. Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali. 19- A noun ending with SAHEEH or GHAYR SAHEEH letter.
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Lessons from the book
MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH –
basics of Arabic Grammar
Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
From the aspect of a noun ending with an ALIF or not, is divided into sound (SAHEEH) and unsound (GHAYR SAHEEH)
SAHEEH ends with any regular consonant letter RAJOL(UN) (رجالٌ)
GHAYR SAHEEH is a noun which ends with certain types of ALIF or YAA: MAQSOOR, MANQOOS and MAMDOOD.
A maqsūrمقصورnoun is a noun that ends in an alif. The alif can either be:
A. long, , for example: عصا (cane)
B. short maqsūrah, for example: فتیَ (young man)
Ends with double FATHAA (TANWEEN) in all the grammatical positions ( DHAMMA, FATHAH, KASRAH are implicit because of the inability to be pronounced)
For example: فتیًجاءَ(a young man came), فتیًرأيتُ(I saw a young man),
and بفتیًمَرَرتُ(I passed by a young man)
A mamdūd ممدودnoun: is a noun that ends with a hamzah preceded by an alif. For example: سماء(sky). (takes the three grammatical signs)
A manqūs منقوصnoun is a noun that ends with a yā’ preceded by a kasrah. For example: القاضي(judge).
A manqūs noun takes the grammatical signs as follows:
A. Does not take DHAMMA and KASRAH instead the yā’ is erased and the letter before YAA takes the double KASRAH. For example: قاضٍجاءَ(a judge came). (if Article AL is prefixed then the DHAMMAH and KASRAH, both are implicit due to the heaviness in the pronunciation).
B. Takes double FATHA as a regular noun, (except in few cases which will be studied in grammar) For example: قاضياًرأيتُ(I saw a judge).
Dubaiدبي is not from MANQOOS because the letter before YAA does not have KASRAH
لبناني Lebnani is not MANQOOS because the YAA at the end is not original (relating YAA)
There are four types of rules for HAMZAH in MAMDOOD regarding the TANWEEN (double vowel signs):
Original ابتداء (Can have TANWEEN)
converted from YAA or WOW سماء (TANWEEN :Yes)
Suffix for expressing female حمراء
Suffix for expressing a plural شعراء
3&4 cannot have TANWEEN (Dealt like foreign nouns)
And in 1&2 ALIF should not be kept after the HAMZA in the case of double FATHAH مساء
A maqsūr noun has three cases for DUAL:
A. If it ends in a long alif – the alif should be changed to a wāw and then the dual letters should be added.
For example:عصا (cane) becomes عَصَو which becomes عَصَوانِ (two canes).
B. If it ends in an alif maqsūrah (short) – the alif
should be changed to a yā’ and then the dual letters should be added.
For example:فتیَ (young man) becomes فَتي which
becomes فَتَيَانِ (two young men).
C. If the ALIF was above three letters then it is converted to YAA absolutely مصطفى مصطفيان
D. For plural maqsūr nouns;its alif is erased and A FATHA indicating the removal of ALIF is placed on the WOW or YAA : مصطَفَونَ (MOSTAFOWN, MOSTAFAYN)
A mamdūd noun has two cases for DUAL:
For example: خَصراء (green) ) becomes خَضراوَ which
B. If it was orignal then it will remain as it is ابتداء= ابتداءان
C. If the hamzah is not a feminine hamzah and it was converted from WOW or YAA then – the hamzah can either remain or be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added. For
example سماء (sky) becomes سماء or سَماوَ which becomes سَماءَانِ or سَماوَانِ (two skies). حياءان حياوان =حياء
فَعلاءأفعل ,or فَعلیَفَعلان