Introduction to Poetry. Poetry!. For the poetry part of this standard, you need to identify and respond to the: subject matter, language, and sound devices in a variety of poems. Poetry!. As you read a poem, you may “hear” the writing in your mind.
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Poetry! For the poetry part of this standard, you need to identify and respond to the: • subject matter, • language, and • sound devices in a variety of poems.
Poetry! As you read a poem, you may “hear” the writing in your mind. Sound devices make poetry sound better in your mind. These sound devices include the following:
Poetryis a literary genre that may encompass a variety of metered or rhythmically measured lines and is intended to evoke an emotional experience in the reader
Tone vs. Mood *Know the difference! Tone- the author's attitude toward his/her subject Tone can be. . . • serious • objective • sarcastic • romantic • ironic • outraged
Tone vs. Mood Mood- the feeling or atmosphere the writer creates for the reader diction + imagery + events + setting = mood
Application. . . Imaginea group of people in an old, three-story house. The people are whispering and walking very slowly through the house. They are easily startled. Some are visibly shaking. The mood created here is one of scary suspense. A reader will wonder what has scared the people and may feel some suspense about the events to come. . . . Now, change the mood by imagining the people talking loudly. They are gesturing at various rooms in the house and whistling appreciatively. They seem excited about the old, colored-glass windows. A reader could assume that these people are about to move into the old house. The mood is no longer scary and suspenseful. It is now light and optimistic.
Imagery Imagery in a Single Sentence While poems and songs can paint a vivid picture since they are longer mediums, imagery can be found in just a single sentence as well. Consider the following imagery examples: • He fumed and charged like an angry bull. • He fell down like an old tree falling down in a storm. • He felt like the flowers were waving him a hello. • The eerie silence was shattered by her scream.
Imagery. . . Just listen. . . A famous poem that contains imagery is "Daffodils" by William Wordsworth. As you read through the poem, he paints a wonderful picture of daffodils such that you can almost picture them in the breeze: A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way
Alliteration Alliteration. Alliteration is the repetition of one initial sound in more than one word. Usually, the repeated sound is of a consonant. Examples: “Wild and woolly” and “hale and hearty” are examples.
sizzle! zoom! ding! buzz! Onomatopoeia is a sound device where a word imitates the sounds associated with it. • Literally means “name making”
Rhyme scheme Rhyme scheme. The rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes in a poem. Each new rhyme in a stanza is represented by a different letter of the alphabet. For example, in a four-line poem in which every other line rhymes, the rhyme scheme is abab. In a six-line poem with every two lines rhyming, the rhyme scheme is aabbcc.
Consonance Consonance- Repetition of consonant sounds at the ENDS of words or WITHIN words…for example, “Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door”
Assonance Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds within words
End Rhyme End Rhyme: Rhymes at the ends of lines of poetry
Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme: “The sharp knife of a short life” Rhymes that occur WITHIN a single line of poetry
Figurative language You will be asked to identify figurative language (which is commonly found in poetry). literal language-language that means what it says directly figurative language- language that communicates ideas beyond the ordinary, literal meanings of words. These include figures of speech (i.e. personification, hyperbole, similes, and metaphors etc.)
Application The simile in lines 1–2 of “Daffodils” mostly describes the speaker’s A dreams B feelings C movements D thoughts
The correct answer is choice B. The phrase “lonely as a cloud” is a direct comparison of the speaker’s emotions to the distant, solitary cloud.
Structure While sound devices and figures of speech are important in poetry, the structure of a poem is often its most distinctive characteristic. The structure refers to the way in which the parts of a work are put together; the words and lines are arranged for a desired effect. Poems are written in stanzas, or groups of lines. These stanzas are arranged in either fixed form or free form.
Structure Fixed form is what most people consider typical poetry: it’s written in traditional verse and generally rhymes. Some fixed form poems have specific requirements on length, rhyming scheme, and number of syllables. A sonnet, for example, is a 14- line rhymed poem.
Structure: Free verse Free form, or free verse, poetry follows no specific guidelines about rhyme, meter, or length. Free form often tries to capture the cadence of regular speech. Some stanzas may rhyme but not in a regular scheme.
Poetry • Some poems are narrative poems. The main purpose of a narrative poem is to tell a story. • Lyric poetry expresses a person’s thoughts or feelings. Elegies, odes, and sonnets are types of lyric poems.
For the final part of the standard related to poetry, you will need to:sort and classify poems according to these forms and structures.
Application Choice B describes a narrative poem. Choice C describes the rhyme scheme, which identifies the poem as fixed verse but not necessarily a lyric. Choice D confuses the meaning of lyric with the meaning of lyrics. Choice A is the correct answer because it is related to the expression of feelings.
Elegy-a song or poem expressing sorrow or lamentation especially for one who is dead Ode-an elaborate and emotional poem that is meant to be sung Sonnet- a lyric poem of 14 lines, commonly written in iambic pentameter. The sonnet may be classified as Petrarchan or Shakespearean. The Shakespearean (or Elizabethan) sonnet consist of three quatrains or four-units, and a final couplet. The typical rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg
Stop here. You are not responsible to know the part about drama yet.
Save the drama for your mama! . . . NOT that kind of drama!
Drama! Drama is literature in which plot and characters are developed through dialogue and action; in other words, drama is literature in play form. Examples: • stage plays • radio plays • movies • television programs
Drama! Drama is known for its dialogue, but what else?
Drama! The last part of this standard focuses on drama, or dramatic literature. The two most common types are tragedies and comedies. A tragedy is a serious play that ends in disaster and sorrow. A comedy is a lighthearted play intended to amuse the audience. Comedies usually end happily.
Drama! Dialogue, the lines spoken by characters, is also an important convention. A monologue is a long,uninterrupted speech by one character spoken in front of and heard by the other characters. A soliloquy is a dramatic monologue where a character reveals his or the inner feelings. An aside is a comment a character makes to the audience, which is not intended for the other characters to hear.
Drama! Dramatic irony is a situation in which the audience knows more than the character onstage. A character does or says something of greater importance than he or she knows. The audience,however, is aware of the meaning and importance of the act or speech.
What are these examples of? 1) [Unbuttoning his overcoat and stepping away from the stove, he turns to face his son.] 2) [Father enters stage left.]
Characteristics of a sonnet. A sonnet is simply a poem written in a certain format. You can identify a sonnet if the poem has the following characteristics: 14 lines. All sonnets have 14 lines which can be broken down into four sections called quatrains.
A strict rhyme scheme. The rhyme scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet is ABAB / CDCD / EFEF / GG (note the four distinct sections in the rhyme scheme). Written in iambic Pentameter. Sonnets are written in iambic pentameter, a poetic meter with 10 beats per line made up of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables.
A sonnet can be broken down into four sections called quatrains. The first three quatrains contain four lines each and use an alternating rhyme scheme. The final quatrain consists of just two lines which both rhyme. Each quatrain should progress the poem as follows: First quatrain: This should establish the subject of the sonnet. Number of lines: 4. Rhyme Scheme: ABAB Second quatrain: This should develop the sonnet’s theme. Number of lines: 4. Rhyme Scheme: CDCD Third quatrain: This should round off the sonnet’s theme. Number of lines: 4. Rhyme Scheme: EFEF Fourth quatrain: This should act as a conclusion to the sonnet. Number of lines: 2. Rhyme Scheme: GG