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Modernisation = efficiency(Key authors Farnham and Horton) Government view is Policing the communities Preventing Fires and Accidents Professionalising the Ambulance service Changing role of the military? Revenue and Customs target led service to preventing illegal imports
What are we doing • Trying to identify the levers for change in public service • Trying to identify the conservative elements • Trying to learn about how culture operates • Trying to identify how to lead change • Trying to identify how to manage change
CHALLENGES IN THE PUBLIC SERVICES • The public service ethos to provide an efficient service to help the public • Who or what defines efficiency • Government • Public Service Managers • Public Service workers • The public • The economy - PFI • Audit commission
Trade Unions Fire Brigades Union Merseyside dispute Police Federation and ACPO Stopping regionalisation Police pay claim Prison Officers Association Overcrowded prisons Pay dispute Privatisation Unison Industrialising the ambulance service and non-uniformed workforce
Equality and Diversity • Very real problems of racism in the military and police • Public face of sexism in the fire service • Prison service ongoing racism • Little recorded difficulty in the ambulance or customs service
Modernisation • Crime fighting, prevention, social control, supporting individuals and communities -politics decide the emphasis • History building of police resistance as government seek to manage them. Sheeny (1993) regionalisation (2006) pay (2008) • Policing an increasing use of other resources than police officers – a widening of the police family • The wider police family including wardens and CSPO who are increasingly responsible for community peace. CSO, Traffic Wardens, Custody Officers • Human Rights Act • Increasing lawyer presence in the station • New National policing (combination of Customs and Police) • Terrorism • National policing agency to support police in implementing policing priorities • But the success of this working depends on attitudes between different groups. • The experts believe the public view has limited understanding • Police should do the right thing in the right way for the right reason • It is hardly possible for police officers to have all the skills necessary to detect/investigate and present evidence in court for all crimes • Performance management may attend to the first two but the need to achieve statistics can push officers to take part in ‘unethical’ behaviour in regard to priorities and use of resources, rather than do what needs to be done • Grieve, J., Harefield, C. and MacVean, A. (2007) Policing, London: Sage.
Fire and Rescue Service • Fire Service • Community Action • Reduction in fire cover • Resilience • Equality • Very resistant informal culture
Cultural Change • Foster and Caplen 2001: 16 • Cultural lock-in – • the inability to change a corporate culture even in the face of a clear market threat • Burke 2002: 76) • Transactional /Evolutionary – • attempting to slowly change behaviour/culture • Transformational/ Revolutionary - • attempting to change the culture head on – a continuous and sweeping change of mission
Weber saw three types of leaders • Traditional ` (divine right to rule) • `Charismatic` (by force of personality) • `Legal or Rational ` (lawful leader).
Adapted to mean • Totalitarian • Physical – bully • Charismatic • Resource – information, money, expert,charismatic • Rational economic • Authority – legitimate • Charismatic – Bully/Totalitarian • Negative – stops things from happening – misdirects, corrupts, mislays, destroys – blocks – filters
Formal leader • Selected on merit (hopefully) • Leader/manager selected to achieve a task -should be the best person for the job • "The principal object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee" (Taylor 1911) • Senior managers are then responsible to ensure that the chosen leader fulfils their job • Owen (1996) Top flight teams
Informal leaders • Chosen • Leaders that are elected by the group they are leading to represent them • Trade Unions • Informal group leader – peer group leaders who manage the informal culture • Sometimes emerge, chosen or choose themselves to take charge in an emergency Some evidence that miners may have done this underground • Firefighters in the bush • People in trouble • Responsibility • Represent the group who elected them • The group have a responsibility to ensure their ‘elected/chosen’ leader consults with them and represents their views • Sometimes, especially in the case of informal cultural leaders, not elected but authoritarian
Leadership • Doyle and Smith (2005) • A definite set of characteristics that made a leader - are aspects of a person's behaviour, some are skills, and others are to do with temperament and intellectual ability. ‘maleness’.
QualitiesJohn Gardner (1989) On Leadership, New York: Free Press. Leaders need: • Physical vitality and stamina • Intelligence and action-oriented judgement • Eagerness to accept responsibility • Task competence • Understanding of followers and their needs • Skill in dealing with people • Need for achievement • Capacity to motivate people • Courage and resolution • Trustworthiness • Decisiveness • Self-confidence • Assertiveness • Adaptability/flexibility
Leadership involves Bennis 1998 • Influencing others • Having followers • Coming to the fore when there is a problem • Having a clear idea of what you want to achieve and why • “Leaders are people, who are able to express themselves fully,” … “They also know what they want,” he continues, “why they want it, and how to communicate what they want to others, in order to gain their co-operation and support.” Lastly, “they know how to achieve their goals” (Bennis 1998: 3).
Leaders (Handy 1985) • Bright but not too bright – not too involved in theory • Able to perceive a need for action and an urge to do it – identifies problems and will act (sometimes out of frustration) to solve them • Confident • Rise above the problem to make a decision – able to be decisive • Good Communicator – gets their message across • Critical attitude to authority – not always accepting • Develop a consensus when possible – always tries to give the team ownership
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid (1964) • Concern for task. Emphasis on the objective. • Directive leadership. X style directive (see also McGregor 1960) • Concern for people. Y style Emphasis on the staff as people not as units of production • Participative leadership. Treating the team as a team to participate in managing the project
Mayo 1949 the start of HRM • Avoidance of anomie • Every Social group must … secure for its individual and group membership: • The satisfaction of material and economic needs. • The maintenance of spontaneous co-operation throughout the organization • The desire to stand well with one’s fellows, the so-called instinct of association, easily outweighs the merely individual interest and the logical reasoning upon which so many spurious principles of management are based (Mayo 1949: 39) • The apprentice learned to be a good workman, and he also learned to ‘get on with’ his fellows
Flowing from the findings of these investigations Mayo came to the following conclusions • work is a group activity • adult’s social world is considerably influenced by their work • The need for recognition, security and sense of belonging is more important in determining workers’ morale and productivity than the physical conditions under which they work • Complaints are more often a symptom of a person’s unhappiness at work than actual statements of fact • Worker’s attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands from both inside and outside the work plant • Informal groups within the work plant exercise strong social controls over the work habits and attitudes of the individual worker • change at work is disruptive (can be good and bad see (Burke 2002) • group collaboration does not occur by accident; it must be planned and developed. If group collaboration is achieved the human relations within a work plant may reach a cohesion which resists disruption • there is the possibility that workers may see the soft side of management as something akin to the big brother. Such Orwellian thoughts can produce strong reactions and the breaking away of informal work cultures to form resistant groups • http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_01_mayo.html
John Adair Action Centred Leadership achieving the task managing the team or group managing individuals
Preparation Regular reviews and support Strategic objectives and personal aims 1. Agree objectives Performance Management adapted from skills for justice presentation a score of 1 (the best) to 3 (1 and 3 need evidencing) 6. Provide feedback 5. Appraise performance 4. Perform to standards 3. Agree support required 2. Identify relevant standards
Differing people differing cultures/genders/backgrounds = differing styles • There is a lot of evidence to suggest cultural factors influence the way that people carry out, and respond to, different leadership styles. • For example, some cultures are more individualistic, or value family as against bureaucratic models, or have very different expectations about how people address and talk with each other. • All this impacts on the choice of style and approach. • Second, there may be different patterns of leadership linked with men and women. • Some have argued that women may have leadership styles that are more nurturing, caring and sensitive. They look more to relationships. • Men are said to look to task. • examples of nurturing men • task-oriented women. • Any contrasts between the style of men and women may be down to the situation. In management, for example, women are more likely to be in positions of authority in people-oriented sectors – so this aspect of style is likely to be emphasized. • (Doyle 2005).
The close knit group/team (see Baigent 2001) • Some groups of workers are very closely knit – they have a belief that to be trusted in the workplace that you should enjoy similar outlooks • People will look for a way to fit themselves into the group that they join • Groups will look for a way to fit newcomers in – even to the extent that they will sanction those who do not • The closely knit team can work with the employer ( see Hochschild 1983 to see how cooperate image is constructed - Collinson 1988, 1992, 1994 to see how workplace cultures operate and can be colonised by managers • The closely knit team can resist the employer and can be broken and colonised (Cockburn 1991a indicates how print unions resisted employers and were then broken) • The closely knit team can resist ‘others’ (for cultural resistance to women see Cockburn 1991b and Collinson and Hearn 1996)
Cultures Formal – based around Core Values to achieve targets set by Government/Chief Officers • Often changing targets • Managers/leaders must follow • Try to persuade their workforce to follow Informal • Often formed to maintain status quo • Personal agendas • Resistance
1. FORMING behaviours. a. Identifying the task and how to accomplish it.b. Deciding what is acceptable group behavior and how to handle group conflict.c. Deciding what information needs to be gathered to tackle the task.d. Abstract conceptual discussions or some members' impatience with these discussions.e. No clear focus on task or problem as evidenced by irrelevant discussions.f. Complaining about organizational problems and barriers to accomplishing the task instead of focusing on the task.
STORMING behaviours. a. Arguing among group members, even if they agree on the issues.b. Choosing sides within the group, bids for power, drawing divisional lines.c. Tension, jealousy, lack of unity, and a perceived hierarchy.d. Establishing unobtainable goals, increased concerns about too much work to be done.
NORMING behaviours. a. Conflict avoidance in an attempt to promote harmony.b. Friendlier discussions on a more personal level, more discussions about the dynamics of the group, begin to confide in one another.c. More of a sense of group cohesion and esprit, more commonality of goals.d. Establishing and maintaining realistic group parameters for behavior and performance.
PERFORMING behaviours. Tuckman a. Constructively changing one's self--actually changing for the betterment of the group.b. Ability to avoid group conflict and, should conflict arise, being able to work through it.c. Much closer identity with the group, understanding each other's strengths and weaknesses.
Resistance • Social function of a group can get in the way of its productive function - what the group is officially there for (see Collinson 1992 and Baigent 2001) • Tightly knit group must serve its cohesiveness first. • Harmony and morale are essential for the group to satisfy their needs. • Individuals give up some free will to remain inside the group – loyalty to the group overrides individual’s views • Consensus at all costs • Can lead to a refusal to think outside of the box – blocks development
Team Roles • Co‑ordinator • Plant • Shaper • Monitor‑Evaluator • Implementer • Resource Investigator • Team Worker • Completer‑Finisher • Specialist (added later).
Assessment Second Semester 2500 words • Identify the advantages politicians are seeking when they attempt the modernisation of public services and discuss how theoretical views (change management, leadership – identity and culture) may help with the reaction from the workforce.Or Identify a recognisable difficulty that public service has with modernisation, or take an example of a difficulty that you observe(d) during your work experience and provide a case study that first explains this difficulty and then uses academic knowledge to theorise how managers may overcome the problem. • Criteria • Identify advantages of modernisation 20% • Identify why (and how) workplace cultures may react to change 20% • Discuss how academic debates may assist in managing change 40% • Introduction 10% • Conclusion 10%