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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

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  1. Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  2. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1) • Energy efficiency • Advantages of reducing energy waste: • Quick and clean • Usually the cheapest to provide more energy • Reduce pollution and degradation • Slow global warming • Increase economic and national security

  3. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (2) • Four widely used devices that waste energy • Incandescent light bulb • Motor vehicle with internal combustion engine • Nuclear power plant • Coal-fired power plant

  4. Flow of Commercial Energy through the U.S. Economy Fig. 16-2, p. 399

  5. Advantages of Reducing Energy Waste Fig. 16-3, p. 399

  6. We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (1) • Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) • Two forms of energy from same fuel source • Replace energy-wasting electric motors • Recycling materials • Switch from low-efficiency incandescent lighting to higher-efficiency fluorescent and LED lighting

  7. LEDs Fig. 16-4, p. 401

  8. We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (2) • Electrical grid system: outdated and wasteful • Utility companies switching from promote use of energy to promoting energy efficiency • Spurred by state utility commissions

  9. Case Study: Saving Energy and Money with a Smarter Electrical Grid • Smart grid • Ultra-high-voltage • Super-efficient transmission lines • Digitally controlled • Responds to local changes in demand and supply • Two-way flow of energy and information • Smart meters show consumers how much energy each appliance uses • U.S cost -- $200-$800 billion; save $100 billion/year

  10. Proposed U.S. Smart Grid Figure 20, Supplement 8

  11. We Can Save Energy and Money in Transportation • Corporate average fuel standards (CAFE) standards • Fuel economy standards lower in the U.S. countries • Fuel-efficient cars are on the market • Hidden prices in gasoline: $12/gallon • Car manufacturers and oil companies lobby to prevent laws to raise fuel taxes • Should there be a feebate?

  12. Average Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sold in the U.S. and Other Countries Fig. 16-5, p. 402

  13. More Energy-Efficient Vehicles Are on the Way • Superefficient and ultralight cars • Gasoline-electric hybrid car • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle • Energy-efficient diesel car • Electric vehicle with a fuel cell

  14. Solutions: A Hybrid-Gasoline-Electric Engine Car and a Plug-in Hybrid Car Fig. 16-6, p. 403

  15. Science Focus: The Search for Better Batteries • Current obstacles • Storage capacity • Overheating • Flammability • Cost • In the future • Lithium-ion battery • Viral battery • Ultracapacitor

  16. We Can Design Buildings That Save Energy and Money • Green architecture • Living or green roofs • Superinsulation • U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

  17. A Green Roof in Chicago Fig. 16-8, p. 405

  18. A Thermogram Shows Heat Loss Fig. 16-9, p. 406

  19. Individuals Matter: Ways in Which You Can Save Money Where You Live Fig. 16-10, p. 407

  20. Why Are We Still Wasting So Much Energy? • Energy remains artificially cheap • Government subsidies • Tax breaks • Prices don’t include true cost • Few large and long-lasting incentives • Tax breaks • Rebates • Low-interest loans

  21. We Can Use Renewable Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity • Renewable energy • Solar energy: direct or indirect • Geothermal energy • Benefits of shifting toward renewable energy • Renewable energy cheaper if we eliminate • Inequitable subsidies • Inaccurate prices • Artificially low pricing of nonrenewable energy

  22. We Can Heat Buildings and Water with Solar Energy • Passive solar heating system • Active solar heating system

  23. Solutions: Passive and Active Solar Heating for a Home Fig. 16-11, p. 409

  24. Passive Solar Home in Colorado Fig. 16-12, p. 410

  25. Rooftop Solar Hot Water on Apartment Buildings in Kunming, China Fig. 16-13, p. 410

  26. Trade-Offs: Passive or Active Solar Heating Fig. 16-14, p. 411

  27. World Availability of Direct Solar Energy Figure 22, Supplement 8

  28. U.S. Availability of Direct Solar Energy Figure 23, Supplement 8

  29. We Can Cool Buildings Naturally • Technologies available • Open windows when cooler outside • Use fans • Superinsulation and high-efficiency windows • Overhangs or awnings on windows • Light-colored roof • Geothermal pumps

  30. We Can Use Sunlight to Produce High-Temperature Heat and Electricity • Solar thermal systems • Central receiver system • Collect sunlight to boil water, generate electricity • 1% of world deserts could supply all the world’s electricity • Require large amounts of water – could limit • Wet cooling • Dry cooling • Low net energy yields

  31. Solar Thermal Power in California Desert Fig. 16-15, p. 411

  32. Trade-Offs: Solar Energy for High Temperature Heat and Electricity Fig. 16-16, p. 412

  33. Solutions: Solar Cooker in India Fig. 16-17, p. 412

  34. We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (1) • Photovoltaic (PV) cells (solar cells) • Convert solar energy to electric energy • Design of solar cells • Sunlight hits cells and releases electrons into wires • Benefits of using solar cells • Solar-cell power plants around the world

  35. Solutions: Solar Cells on Rooftop and for Many Purposes Fig. 16-18, p. 413

  36. Solar Cell Array in Niger, West Africa Fig. 16-19, p. 413

  37. Solar-Cell Power Plant in Arizona Fig. 16-20, p. 414

  38. We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (2) • Key problems • High cost of producing electricity • Need to be located in sunny desert areas • Fossil fuels used in production • Solar cells contain toxic materials • Will the cost drop with • Mass production • New designs • Government subsidies and tax breaks

  39. We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (3) • 2040: could solar cells produce 16%? • Nanosolar: California (U.S.) • Germany: huge investment in solar cell technology • General Electric: entered the solar cell market

  40. Global Production of Solar Electricity Figure 11, Supplement 9

  41. Trade-Offs: Solar Cells Fig. 16-21, p. 414

  42. We Can Produce Electricity from Falling and Flowing Water • Hydropower • Uses kinetic energy of moving water • Indirect form of solar energy • World’s leading renewable energy source used to produce electricity • Advantages and disadvantages • Micro-hydropower generators

  43. Tradeoffs: Dams and Reservoirs Fig. 13-13, p. 328

  44. Trade-Offs: Large-Scale Hydropower, Advantages and Disadvantages Fig. 16-22, p. 415

  45. Tides and Waves Can Be Used to Produce Electricity • Produce electricity from flowing water • Ocean tides and waves • So far, power systems are limited • Disadvantages • Few suitable sites • High costs • Equipment damaged by storms and corrosion

  46. Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (1) • Wind: indirect form of solar energy • Captured by turbines • Converted into electrical energy • Second fastest-growing source of energy • What is the global potential for wind energy? • Wind farms: on land and offshore

  47. World Electricity from Wind Energy Figure 12, Supplement 9

  48. Solutions: Wind Turbine and Wind Farms on Land and Offshore Fig. 16-23, p. 417

  49. Wind Turbine Fig. 16-24, p. 417

  50. Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (2) • Countries with the highest total installed wind power capacity • Germany • United States • Spain • India • Denmark • Installation is increasing in several other countries