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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 18. Section 1: The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency. What is energy efficiency? How much energy do we waste? What is life cycle cost? What is net energy efficiency?.

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energy efficiency and renewable energy
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

14th Edition

Chapter 18

section 1 the importance of improving energy efficiency
Section 1: The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency

What is energy efficiency? How much energy do we waste?

What is life cycle cost?

What is net energy efficiency?

what is energy efficiency
What is energy efficiency?

Energy efficiency is the measure of the useful energy produced compared to the energy converted to low quality--- usually heat.

Using energy to do work, not produce heat.

what is energy conservation
What is energy conservation?

Implementing new technology to do same work using less energy.

  • Heating homes more efficiently
  • Driving more efficient cars
  • Lightning spaces more efficiently

SAVES $$$, produces less pollution, reduces CO2

energy conservation
Energy Conservation
  • 84% of commercial electricity is wasted in U.S.
  • 41% of energy is automatically wasted due to 2nd Law Of Thermodynamics
  • 43% is wasted unnecessarily
the importance of improving energy efficiency
The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency
  • Energy efficiency
  • Net energy efficiency

Least Efficient

  • Incandescent lights
  • Nuclear power plants
  • Internal combustion engine

Fig. 18-3 p. 381

life cycle costs
Life Cycle Costs

Initial Cost plus the lifetime cost.

Some energy efficient models may cost more up front, but save money in the long run.

Civic Hybrid vs. Conventional Gas

net energy efficiency
Net Energy Efficiency

Measure of how much useful energy we get from energy resource after subtracting the energy wasted.

How much energy you get out given ALL the wasted energy.

section 2 ways to improve energy efficiency key concepts
Section 2: Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Key Concepts

How can we save energy in industry?

How can we save energy in transportation?

How can we design buildings to save energy?

How can we save energy in existing buildings?

Why are we still wasting so much energy?

ways to improve energy efficiency
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Cogeneration
  • Efficient electric motors
  • High-efficiency lighting
  • Increasing fuel economy
  • Alternative vehicles
  • Insulation
  • Plug leaks
how can industry save energy
How can industry save energy?
  • Cogeneration – combining heat and power systems
  • Improving electric motor efficiency (consumes 1/4th of energy)
  • Improving light fixtures
how can we save energy in transportation
How can we save energy in transportation?

CAFÉ Standards need to be increased.

Increase to 40 mpg in 10yrs would cut consumption in half (could eliminate imports from Middle East)

hybrid and fuel cell cars
Hybrid and Fuel Cell Cars
  • Hybrid electric-internal combustion engine

Hybrid-electric cars are powered by a battery and a small ICE that recharges the battery.

Fig. 18-9 p. 385

fuel cell cars
Fuel Cell Cars

Fuel cell cars run on hydrogen and produce little pollution.

Combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water vapor.

Ford Focus Fuel Cell Car

how can we design more efficient buildings
How can we Design More Efficient Buildings?

Chicago’s Sears Tower uses more energy in a day than a city of 150,000

Atlanta’s Georgia Power Company uses 60% less energy than other buildings it size.

how can we design more efficient buildings1
How can we Design More Efficient Buildings?

We can save energy in buildings by

  • Getting heat from the sun
  • Insulating well
  • Using plants for shade and wind blockage
how can we design more efficient buildings2
How can we Design More Efficient Buildings?

Super insulated house:

  • Costs 5% more to build
  • Can use 90% less energy for heating and cooling

Green Roofs:

  • Plants or gardens on roof help insulate from heat in summer and cold in winter
how can we save energy in existing buildings
How can we save energy in existing buildings?

We can save energy in existing buildings by:

  • insulating them
  • plugging leaks
  • using heating, electricity, cooling, appliances and lighting more efficiently
insulate and plug leaks
Insulate and plug leaks

1/3rd of heated air in U.S. homes is lost through windows, holes and cracks.

Insulating and plugging holes is the easiest and cheapest ways to save energy.

use efficient windows
Use Efficient Windows

Double pained, insulating windows cost more, but can save money in the long run.

heat house more efficiently
Heat House More Efficiently

Using the most efficient heating system available.

Some natural gas furnaces can reach 85-98% efficiency

heat water more efficiently
Heat Water More Efficiently

There are several new technologies to heat water more efficiently:

  • Tankless, instant heaters
  • Well insulated tank
use energy efficient lighting and appliances
Use Energy Efficient Lighting and Appliances

Microwaves, refrigerators, washers, driers, lights all come with energy star labels

¼ of electricity bill is lighting

cut off electrical devises not in use
Cut Off Electrical Devises Not In Use

When not using lights, computers, TV’s and other electrical devises they should be turned off.

review section 2
Review Section 2

How can we save energy in industry?

How can we save energy in transportation?

How can we design buildings to save energy?

How can we save energy in existing buildings?

Why are we still wasting so much energy?

section 3 producing energy with solar power key ideas
Section 3: Producing Energy With Solar Power: Key Ideas

What are the main types of renewable energy?

How can we use direct solar energy to heat and cool homes?

How can we use solar energy to produce electricity?

What are solar cells?

What are advantages and disadvantages of solar cells?

what are the main types of renewable energy
What are the main types of renewable energy?

The next several sections we will go through:

  • Solar Energy
  • Flowing Water
  • Wind
  • Biomass
  • Geothermal
  • Hydrogen
  • Other possible renewable energy sources.
what are the main types of renewable energy1
What are the main types of renewable energy?
  • EU by 2020: 22% renewable
  • CA gets 12% from renewable (20% by 2020)
  • Union of Concerned Scientists study said 20% by 2020 is possible
using solar energy to provide heat
Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat
  • Passive solar heating: absorbs and stores heat from the sun directly within the structure

Has been used for thousands of years.

using solar energy to provide heat1
Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat

Active Solar: absorbs heat energy from sun by pumping heat absorbent fluid through collectors.

Great for hot water heaters in warmer climates

using solar energy for electricity
Using Solar Energy for Electricity

Solar energy can be converted directly into electricity using

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS (PV) or “Solar Cells”

Sunlight energizes electron to flow in a semi conductor producing an electrical current

using solar energy for electricity1
Using Solar Energy for Electricity

Solar Cells can be incorporated into roofing and windows.

High costs are expected to fall

Currently only supply 0.05% of world electricity

using solar energy for electricity2
Using Solar Energy for Electricity

Great for rural locations

BP in 2004 began to mass produce cells

With increased R&D and government help --- 25% by 2040???

using solar energy for electricity3
Using Solar Energy for Electricity

Solar Thermal Systems: large solar arrays in sunny areas can produce high-temperature heat for:

  • Electricity
  • Hot water
  • Heating
  • Wash Machines
using solar energy for electricity4
Using Solar Energy for Electricity
  • Solar thermal systems
  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells
producing electricity from the water cycle section 4 key concepts
Producing Electricity From the Water Cycle: Section 4 Key Concepts

How can we produce electricity from flowing water?

What are advantages and disadvantages of hydropower?

What is tidal and wave power?

producing electricity from moving water
Producing Electricity from Moving Water
  • Large-scale hydropower
  • Small-scale hydropower
  • Tidal power plant
  • Wave power plant
renewable hydropower
Renewable Hydropower

Water flowing in rivers and streams can be trapped in reservoirs behind a dam and released to spin turbines to produce electricity.

In 2002, hyrdro accounted for 20% of world electricity (Norway 99%, U.S. 7% -- 50% in west)

renewable hydropower1
Renewable Hydropower

According to UN only 13% of potential hydropower has been developed

Large Scale Hydro Power has been curtailed recently by environmental concerns

tidal power
Tidal Power

Using the twice daily natural rise and fall of tidal waters to produce power.

Newer concept

Lot of potential in certain tidal regions.

Problems???

wave power
Wave Power

Using the constant wave action along shorelines to produce power.

Another form of wind power.

Problems???

producing electricity from wind section 5 key concepts
Producing Electricity from Wind Section 5 Key Concepts

What is the global status of wind power?

How does wind produce electricity?

What are advantages and disadvantages of using wind for electricity production?

producing electricity from wind
Producing Electricity from Wind

Since 1995, the use of wind turbines to produce electricity has grown sevenfold.

World’s fastest growing energy source

Europe leading the way in use and manufacturing

producing electricity from wind1
Producing Electricity from Wind

India – use growing rapidly.

Much of the wind’s power remain untapped

Great Plains of U.S. DOE called “Saudi Arabia of Wind”

With government help 25% by 2025?

producing electricity from wind2
Producing Electricity from Wind

New Source of revenue for many farmers.

Fig. 18-23 p. 396

Fig. 18-24 p. 397

slide85

Members of Alameda County's avian-mortality monitoring team count dead birds at Altamont Pass. Photo courtesy of Alameda County

slide90

http://www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/where_is_wind_new_jersey.asphttp://www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/where_is_wind_new_jersey.asp

producing energy from biomass
Producing Energy from Biomass
  • Biomass and biofuels
  • Biomass plantations
  • Crop residues
  • Animal manure
  • Biogas
  • Ethanol
  • Methanol
geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy
  • Geothermal heat pumps
  • Geothermal exchange
  • Hot water
  • Molten rock (magma)
section 8 hydrogen key ideas
Section 8: Hydrogen Key Ideas

Can hydrogen replace oil?

How can hydrogen be used for power?

What are advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen?

the hydrogen revolution
The Hydrogen Revolution
  • Environmentally friendly hydrogen
  • Extracting hydrogen efficiently
  • Storing hydrogen
  • Fuel cells
the hydrogen revolution1
The Hydrogen Revolution

Fig. 18-31 p. 403