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Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing

Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing. Reading an Argument Considering Rhetorical Context (Author,Audience,Date/Place of Publication). Guidelines for Determining Rhetorical Context.

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Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing

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  1. Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing Reading an Argument Considering Rhetorical Context (Author,Audience,Date/Place of Publication)

  2. Guidelines for Determining Rhetorical Context • Who wrote this argument,and what are his/her training,personal background,and political learning? • Who is the intended audience? • Where did it appear originally? • When was the argument written? • Why was the article written?

  3. A Step-By-Step analysis of Toulmin Method of evaluation of logical pattern Analyze the Claim Identify the Claim Look for Qualifiers: Absolute,Relative,or Universal /”typically” /“usually” /“most of the time” Find the Exceptions Summarize the Claim Assess the arguer’s refutations Note the Counter Arguments

  4. Argumentation versus Persuasion • These words are often used interchangeably. • Argumentation: the process of forming reasons and of drawing conclusions and applying them to a case in discussion. An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research. • Persuasion: the tactical process of moving to a belief, position or a course of action.

  5. Argument • Good argumentative writing is more defined when utilized with other forms of writing such as description, a short narrative, classification, cause and effect,comparison/contrast, etc.

  6. Styles of argumentative of writing • Toulmin model: Follows the pattern of a claim (proposition/thesis), data (support) with qualifiers, warrant, and a concession. • Rogers’ model: Use of Rogerian arguments to come to a conclusion that mixes both views of the issue to reach a common ground.

  7. the uses…. • Everyday life • Workplace • Academic environment • Reading and Listening- (current events)

  8. The basics of an argument • Your position and know the purpose of your essay • Analyze your audience • Reasons • Evidence: Research your topic

  9. Audience • Write with sincerity towards audience using an ethical appeal • Don’t write with an arrogance or with disregard to opposing views • Try starting in introduction, gaining confidence of audience • This approach will show your concern and fair-minded purpose

  10. Writing an argumentative • Choose an interesting controversial issue • Focus on a question related to your topic • Choose a position • Acknowledge opposing positions • Investigate topic and get informed

  11. Persuasive Essay Outline • I- Introduction: • A. “ Hook “ • B. Background Information if necessary • C.Thesis or focus statement

  12. Persuasive Essay Outline Contin. • II. First argument or reason to support your position • A. Topic sentence explaining your point • B. Elaboration

  13. Persuasive Outline Contin. • III.Second Argument or reason • IV. Third Argument • V. Opposing viewpoint • A Opposing point to your argument • B.Rebuttal to the opposing point • C. Elaboration: Syllogistic Logic VI. Conclusion: A. Summary of main points or reasons B. Restate thesis statement C. Comments or call to action

  14. The Thesis… • Outlines and gives a clear and concise main idea of essay • Can’t be a declared fact (won’t be argumentable) • Declares something is fact, by providing evidence throughout essay • Supports a policy • Calls for action • Asserts value

  15. Introduction in Argumentative/Persuasive essays include: • A” hook or grabber” to catch attention(Strong Statement:”Cigarettes are the number one cause of lung cancer in the world!”),(Quotations:E.Hubbard once said, “Truth is stronger than fiction.”), Statistics,anecdote,a question,exaggeration or outrageous statement:The whole world watched as the comet flew overhead. • Thesis or focus statement: Topic,stance,Purpose,scope,organization

  16. Example Introduction: • [Grabber:Strong Statement]Of all the problems facing the environment today,the one that bothers me the most is global warming.Some scientists say that the earth is getting warmer because of the greenhouse effect.[Thesis]In this paper I will describe the greenhouse effect and whether the atmosphere is actually getting warmer.

  17. THE BODY of a Persuasive • Provide evidence to support the opinion offered in the thesis statement • Use Deductive/Inductive reasoning to provide solid reasons to back your thesis • Elaborate with the use of statistics or research,examples,or real-life experiences • Clarify a position,draw comparison,make an analysis,draw an analogy,refute counter arguments,and generate hypothetical instances(cues:e.g. suppose that,what if,etc.)

  18. Conclusion • Restate your thesis or focus statement • Summarize the main points by paraphrasing • Write a personal comment or call for action: with a prediction,with a question to draw reader’s own conclusion,with a recommendation stressing the actions or remedies that should be taken

  19. General Guideline for Writing a Persuasive Essay • Have a firm opinion that you like your audience to accept • Begin with a grabber or hook • Offer evidence to support your opinion • Discuss and refute the opposing views • Conclude with a restatement of what you want the reader to do or believe

  20. Obtaining information • By reading • Conversation with others • Use your own observations • Questionnaire • Periodicals • Always cite sources used • Make sure the information you receive is relevant and credible and valid

  21. Evidence Includes: • Established Truths Historical, scientific, and geographical facts • Authoritative point of view • Primary sources • Statistics • Personal experience/Examples

  22. Managing evidence • Reliability • How much endorsing evidence? • Contradictory • How well established is evidence? • Does it support/fit your claim? • Allow it to be conclusive

  23. The Three Persuasive Appeals • Logos: Logic- the appeal to reason • Pathos: Emotion- the appeal to emotion • Ethos: Credibility- the appeal of one’s character

  24. Logos: reasoning strategies • Induction: A process through which the premises provide some basis for the conclusion. • Deduction: A process through which the premises provide conclusive proof for the conclusion. Reductio ad Absurdum: (to reduce to absurdity) To question a position by showing that its consequence are problematic if carried to their logical end.

  25. Questions of Credibility • Has the reader been able to rely on what you have said in the past? If they are unfamiliar with you… • Do you know what you’re talking about? Are you familiar with all sides of the issue? • Have you done your research on the issue? • Have you documented your researchthoroughly and accurately? • Have you thoughtfully addressedthe opposition?

  26. Some Ways to Use the Three Appeals

  27. Syllogism • The simplest sequence of logical premises and conclusions • every syllogism contains at least three parts: • a major premise (global assumption) • a minor premise (specific claim) • a conclusion IF A=B and B=C, then A=C

  28. Enthymeme • shorten version of syllogism • a syllogism without stating either the major or minor premise (it is implied) • less formal than the syllogism • sometimes more persuasive • are often “because” statements

  29. Fallacies= mistakes made in the logic of arguments Common fallacies found in arguments include: • Hasty Generalizations- a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence • Non Sequitur- “It does not follow” • Slippery slope- the snow ball effect • Card Stacking-presenting part of the claim • Stereotyping • Ad populum- an emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) or negative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts rather than the real issue at hand

  30. Fallacies (cont.) • Either/Or • Begging the claim- conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim( Circular argument) • Arguing Off the point • The argument ad Hominem- “attack the person’s character than their opinion” • Appeal to crowd • Guilt by association • Post Hoc, ergo Propter Hoc-”after this, therefore because of this” • Faulty analogy: assuming two unlike things are similar when in fact they are not • Red Herring

  31. Avoid also… • Strawmantactics- pointing out and focusing on flimsy weaknesses of opposing side. • Anonymous authority- refers to a source of authority but does not name the source nor explain its legitimacy. • This will show that you are trying to prove your position by disregarding other facts.

  32. True argument vs. valid argument • true argument- argument that has conclusion that people commonly consider to be fact based on their worldly experience or wide-spread belief • valid argument- argument that has a conclusion that logically follows its underlying assumption regardless of whether the assumption is true or not

  33. Revising • Consider the objections of the opposing appeal • Do you capture the audience? • Is evidence appropriate to the argument? • Are the authorities qualified to be used as a source? • Is the proposition clearly stated? • Is it free of fallacies?

  34. Tips of writing an essay • Avoid emotional language • Be able to determine difference between a logical conclusion and an emotional point of view • Don’t make up evidence • Cite your sources • Make an outline- DO THE WRITING PROCESS • Be prepared to defend your side by knowing the strongest arguments for the other side.

  35. Concluding • Restate your position. • Summarize your main points. • Predict the consequences if it does or does not prevail. • Prepare to end your essay possibly with an emotional appeal.

  36. The End!

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